National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) - A Brief Overview

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analyzing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL). NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India.

Aspirants can find information on the structure and other important details related to the IAS Exam, in the linked article.

Latest Update about NCRB:

It released the latest 67th edition of its Crime in India Report. The findings of the NCRB Report 2019 are given below in this article.

UPSC aspirants can refer to the links below for the upcoming exam preparation:

Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC)  Police Reforms in India
International Criminal Court (ICC) Cybercrime
United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) 25 Important Supreme Court Judgements for UPSC

NCRB – UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) – Formation

  1. NCRB was set-up in 1986.
  2. NCRB was formed by merging the Inter-State Criminals Data Branch, Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI.
  3. As part of NCRB evolution, the Crime and Criminal Tracking Networking System (CCTNS) was approved in 2009 and Digital Police Portal was launched in 2017.

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) – Objectives

  1. Maintain a national database of fingerprints of all criminals in India.
  2. Create, lead, and coordinate the development of IT applications for Police.
  3. Collate information and maintain statistics on crime and criminals at the national level.
  4. Creation and maintenance of Database at the National level for law enforcement agencies.
  5. To coordinate, guide and assist the functioning of the State Crime Records Bureaux, along with, providing training facilities to personnel of the Crime Records bureaux
  6. To function as the National storehouse of fingerprint (FP) records of convicted persons including FP records of foreign criminals
  7. To keep the central and state governments updated with the official records and findings related to any case
Kickstart your UPSC preparation now and complement it with the links given below:

Crime in India 2019 Report [Latest] – NCRB

The first edition of ‘Crime in India’ pertains to the year 1953 and the latest edition of the report pertains to the year 2019. This is the oldest and the most prestigious publication brought out by NCRB. The data for the report is collected by State Crime Records Bureaux (SCRBx) from the District Crime Records Bureaux (DCRBx). Data on megacities are also collected.

Key Findings of NCRB Report 2019:

  1. A total of 3225071 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes were registered in 2019. In 1980, the number was 1368529.
    • A total of 8,60,960 cognizable crimes comprising 6,04,897 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes and 2,56,063 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes were registered in 19 metropolitan cities during 2019.
  2. Crime rate stands at 241.2.
  3. A total of 5156172 cognizable crimes comprising 3225071 IPC crimes and 1930471 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes were registered in 2019. 
  4. The rate of registration of crime has increased by 1.6 percent.
  5. Out of total cognizable crimes, IPC crimes cover 62.6 percent.
  6. Offence Affecting the Human Body – 51.9 percent of the total offences that hurt the human body (1050945) accounts for hurt. 13.8 percent cases were of death by negligence and 10 percent of kidnapping.
  7. Murder – There is a marginal decrease in the number of murder cases. 28918 cases of murder have been registered in 2019. Out of 28918 cases, a dispute has been the common reason behind 9516 cases; followed by personal vendetta and gain respectively.
  8. There is a marginal decrease of 0.7 percent in kidnapping and abduction cases.
    • Kidnapping of women – 84921 cases (55370 children)
    • Kidnapping of men – 23104 cases (15894 children)
    • 96295 persons were recovered out of which 744 were recovered dead.
  9. Offences against public tranquillity:
    • There is a decrease of 17.6 percent in the cases of offences against public tranquillity in 2019 over 2018.
    • 63359 such cases registered in 2019.
    • 72.9 percent of riot cases registered in 2019.
  10. Crime Against Women:
    • There is an increase of 7.3 percent in the cases of crime against women in 2019 over 2018.
    • 405861 cases were registered.
    • Majority of the cases of crime against women (30.9 percent) were registered under ‘Cruelty by husband or his relatives’; followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ (21.8 percent); ‘Kidnapping & Abduction of Women’ (17.9 percent) and ‘Rape’ (7.9 percent).
  11. Crime Against Children:
    • There is an increase of 4.5 percent of cases of crime against children in 2019 over 2018.
    • Kidnapping and abduction accounts for 46.6 percent of 148185 cases.
    • Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 including child rape account for 35.3 percent.
  12. There is a significant increase of 63.5 percent in the cases of cybercrimes.
  13. There is a decrease of 0.8 percent in the registered cases of human trafficking in 2019 over 2018.
  14. The number of missing persons has increased by 9.5 percent in 2019.
  15. A total of 1,12,413 number of ammunition were also seized during 2019.
  16. Conviction Rate:
    • Murder – 41.9 percent
    • Rape – 27.8 percent
    • Kidnapping and Abduction – 24.9 percent
    • Rioting – 19.4 percent
    • Hurt – 30.6 percent
  17. The state-wise percentage share of total cases is mentioned below:
    • Andhra Pradesh – 3.7
    • Arunachal Pradesh – 0.1
    • Assam – 3.8
    • Bihar – 6.1
    • Chhattisgarh – 1.9
    • Goa – 0.1
    • Gujarat – 4.3
    • Haryana – 3.5
    • Himachal Pradesh – 0.4
    • Jharkhand – 1.6
    • Karnataka – 3.7
    • Kerala – 5.5
    • Madhya Pradesh – 7.6
    • Maharashtra – 10.6
    • Manipur – 0.1
    • Meghalaya – 0.1
    • Mizoram – 0.1
    • Nagaland – 0
    • Odisha – 3
    • Punjab – 1.4
    • Rajasthan – 7
    • Sikkim – 0
    • Tamil Nadu – 5.2
    • Telangana – 3.7
    • Tripura – 0.2
    • Uttarakhand – 0.4
    • Uttar Pradesh – 10.9
    • West Bengal – 4.9

Refer to the links below regarding crime and violence against women and children in the country:

Tackling Crime Against Women: RSTV – The Big Picture Sexual Harassment At Work Place
Violence Against Children Child Labour in India

UPSC 2021

Crime in India 2018 Report  – NCRB

Key Findings – 2018

  1. A total of 50,74,634 cognizable crimes comprising 31,32,954 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes and 19,41,680 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes were registered in 2018. 
  2. During 2018, registration of cases under IPC has increased by 2.3% 
  3. A total of 29,017 cases of murder were registered during 2018, showing an increase of 1.3% over 2017 
  4. A total of 1,05,734 cases of kidnapping & abduction were registered during 2018, showing an increase of 10.3% over 2017
  5. In 2017 the crime rate per lakh women population was 57.9, but there has been an increase in 2018, the crime rate stood at 58.8.
  6. In 2017, the crime rate per lakh children was 2017, however, it has increased to 31.8 per lakh children in 2018. 
  7. Under Economic offences – forgery, cheating, and fraud accounted for maximum such cases, with 1,34,546 cases
  8. During 2018, 55.2% of cyber-crime cases registered were for the motive of fraud.
  9. A total of 3,47,524 persons were reported missing in 2018. 
  10. A total of 2,57,243 notes worth Rs.17,95,36,992 were seized under Fake Indian Currency Notes (FICN) during 2018.
  11. As per Narcotics Control Bureau, a total of 49,450 cases were registered for drugs seizure in which 60,156 persons (including foreigners) were arrested during 2018.

NCRB – UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here

Candidates can find the general pattern of the Civil Service Exam by visiting the UPSC Syllabus page 

Related Links

IAS Salary Criminal Courts
UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-III Strategy, Syllabus & Structure Topic-Wise General Studies Paper-3 Questions for UPSC Mains
Difference between Civil Law and Criminal Law Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act [UPSC Notes for GS II]
Cyber Security – Definition, Cyber Attacks, Need, and Laws National Investigation Agency (NIA) – Central Agency to Deal with Terror Related Crimes
UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-II Strategy, Syllabus & Structure Central Intelligence And Investigative Agencies of India – A Brief Overview

FAQ about National Crime Records Bureau


Which state has highest crime rate in India 2020?

Uttar Pradesh topped the list with 59,445 cases, followed by Maharashtra (35,497) and West Bengal (30,394).

Which state is lowest in crime in India?

Nagaland has continued to have the lowest registered crime rate


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