23 Sep 2018: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS1 Related
B. GS2 Related
GOVERNANCE
1. Withdraw instant triple talaq ordinance: women’s groups
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. U.S. to end H-1B spouse work permits
C. GS3 Related
HEALTH
1. In the grip of a fever
D. GS4 Related
ETHICS
1. Kodagu devastation aggravated by human interference: Reports
E. Editorials
ECONOMY
1. Do Mudra loans have credit risks?
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. The lowdown on cases before new CJI
F. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
1. Tuberculosis
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions 

A. GS1 Related

Nothing here for today!!!

B. GS2 Related

Category: GOVERNANCE

1. Withdraw instant triple talaq ordinance: women’s groups

Context

  • Women activists and supporters of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB)’s women’s wing on Saturday lodged protest against the ordinance criminalising instant triple talaq and described the move as a ‘political stunt’.
  • Addressing the media, AIMPLB member Asma Zehra claimed the ordinance intends to throw Muslim men in jail for three years. That, she said, is unjust and against the very essence of human rights.
  • “The triple talaq bill is in the Rajya Sabha. The government did not talk to any intellectual or Islamic scholar, and the bill has not been passed by the Rajya Sabha,” she said. The AIMPLB has said the three-year prison term for those who pronounce triple talaq would destroy families and drive them to economic ruin.
  • Demanding withdrawal of the ordinance, the HMWF said, “It (ordinance) seeks to impose three years of imprisonment on erring husbands while mandating that he provide maintenance to the family. How can a husband in jail provide for the wife and child?”

Background

  • The recent Supreme Court’s judgment in the Shayara Bano case held that the practice of talaq-e-biddat (or triple talaq) unconstitutional. This was hailed as a step towards the emancipation of Muslim women and a win in the war against institutional remnants of gender inequality.
  • After the judgement government passed Muslim protection Bill in Lok Sabha but there have been criticism about the legal and procedural aspects of the bill.

Muslim women bill 2017 – Critical Evaluation

  • The Supreme Court had set aside the validity of instant talaq (talaq-e-biddat), thus rendering its pronouncement ineffective in dissolving a marriage.
  • But the bill makes the pronouncement punishable with a three-year imprisonment such an arbitrary exercise of legislative power is liable to be judicially reviewed and struck down for violating the principles of natural justice and rule of law.
  • It negates the recent Supreme Court ruling by unwittingly favouring a sense of medieval view that the pronouncement of talaq-e-biddat breaks the marriage, and, therefore, needs to criminalised.
  • The present Bill does not provide her any additional benefits in terms of her rights in marriage and divorce which were already promised under Crpc and PWDVA.
  • The Bill does not add anything new to the already existing maintenance responsibilities of the husband covered under various Acts.
  • No country has criminalised triple talaq. It has been made illegal and void. For instance, in Algeria, talaq pronounced outside court is not considered legal.
  • The most significant ground on which the triple talaq Bill fails the test of constitutionality is found in Article 21 which states that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.
  • Bill also constitutes unwarranted punitive deprivation of personal liberty of Article 19, especially clauses 19(1)d and 19(1)g. Thus, if a man is unjustifiably jailed under the proposed law even for a few weeks, he will be denied of these rights for that period.
  • Furthermore, since the present Bill says that triple talaq is cognizable and non-bailable, married Muslim man become vulnerable target as policemen can arrest and investigate the accused with or without the complaint from wife or any other person.
  • It would be difficult for a woman to prove that the man has given her triple talaq in one sitting.
  • Divorce is not a crime. Not fulfilling monetary responsibilities as the law obligates of divorced wife and children or dependents, in case they are unable to maintain themselves is considered as an offence only after due process of law. The fact is there are existing laws that have already covered the issue.
  • Arresting a man for triple talaq in one instance can actually destroy families. As triple talaq in one instance is illegal, the marriage subsists and it would be the responsibility of the man to maintain his family while utterance of triple talaq will land him in jail for upto 3 years.
  • The dependents would be left to fend for themselves as the man behind the bars won’t be in a position to pay for the family expenses.
  • Because of the bill innocent men could be forced to undergo the aforementioned humiliating punishments reserved for cognisable and non-bailable offences.

Conclusion

  • In the light of additional suggestions given government needs to consult multiple stakeholders and then pass the bill.

Category: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. U.S. to end H-1B spouse work permits

Context

  • The Donald Trump administration is moving ahead with a proposal to end work permits for spouses of H-1B workers in the United States, a federal court has been told.
  • Spouses of H-1B visa holders, whose green card applications have reached a certain milestone, can get employment authorisation under a 2015 executive order. Dependents of H-1B visa holders get H-4 visas.
  • After the new regulations are published, there will be time for public comments and revisions before they come into effect.
  • However, the uncertainty over their legal status has already stalled the job prospects of hundreds of H-4 visa holders.

Few important US Visas

H-1B Visa

  • The H-1B category is an expedient and lawful method to bring foreign-born professionals temporarily to the United States, and therefore one of the most widely sought after visa classifications for employment in the United States.
  • The H-1B is a non-immigrant visa in the United States; it allows U.S. employers to temporarily employ foreign workers in specialty occupations.
  • H-4 visa is a work permit issued to the spouses of H1-B visa holders under a special order by the previous Obama administration.
  • H-4 visa allows work permits for spouses who otherwise could not be employed without waiting for their spouses to receive permanent resident status, a process that can take a decade or longer.

H-2B Visa

  • The H-2B visa nonimmigrant program permits employers to hire foreign workers to come temporarily to the United States and perform temporary nonagricultural services or labor on a one-time, seasonal, peakload or intermittent basis.

L-1 Visa

  • The L-1 visa facilitates the temporary transfer of foreign worker in the managerial, executive or specialized knowledge category to the U.S. to continue employment with an office of the same employer, its parent branch, subsidiary or affiliate.
  • L-1 visa is a temporary non-immigrant visa that allows L-2 visa for the spouse and minor unmarried children under 21 years of age. L-1 visa holder is known as intra-company transferee.
  • Even though L-1 visa was initially made for large multinational companies to transfer their employees to the U.S., it provides small or start-up companies abroad to expand their business and services to the U.S.

C. GS3 Related

Category: HEALTH

1. In the grip of a fever

Context

  • Maharashtra has seen a surge in H1N1 cases since July; blame it on the weather.
  • Swine flu continues to hover over Maharashtra, with health authorities attributing 60 deaths to the lethal H1N1 virus since January this year.

Contributing factors

  • Health authorities and medical practitioners ascribe this to prolonged wet spells over the western and northern parts of the State.
  • There were also the annual Ganesha festivities that helped the virus spread. “The majority of the cases are from the past two months. The ongoing Ganesha festivities, with large public congregations contribute further to the spread of the virus,” said Dr. Anjali Sabne, assistant medical officer, Pune Municipal Corporation.

High-risk populations

  • People with diabetes, those suffering from hypertension, pregnant mothers and children

Swine Flu

  • Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs.
  • Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that is the most common cause of human influenza.
  • It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic synergy. Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell. Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells.
  • Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza).

 Avian Influenza (H5N1)

  • H5N1 is a type of influenza virus that causes a highly infectious, severe respiratory disease in birds called avian influenza (or “bird flu”).
  • Human cases of H5N1 avian influenza occur occasionally, but it is difficult to transmit the infection from person to person.
  • When people do become infected, the mortality rate is about 60%
  • Almost all cases of H5N1 infection in people have been associated with close contact with infected live or dead birds, or H5N1-contaminated environments
  • The virus does not infect humans easily, and spread from person to person appears to be unusual.

D. GS4 Related

Category: ETHICS

1. Kodagu devastation aggravated by human interference: Reports

Context

  • The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has tabulated 105 landslips in human-habited areas, a team from the World Resources Institute (WRI) used satellite imagery to enumerate at least 254 various landslip instances affecting 1,060 hectares (nearly 10.6 sq km) of land.
  • Two reports paint a clearer picture of the human interferences that aggravated the devastation in Kodagu district in August.
  • While heavy rainfall was the trigger, human-induced land changes worsened situation, say experts

Environmental ethics and human values

“We have not inherited the Earth from our forefathers but have borrowed it from our children.”- Anonymous

  • The only way to save the environment is to get everyone involved. No government or organisation alone can undo the wrong done by all collectively and continuously. Latter can only make conscious efforts to make people aware of their duties towards the environment.
  • Understanding one’s role and importance in reversing the dangerous changes done to the environment makes a lot of difference to the whole
  • Respect: Going by the same, no effort is fruitful unless done wholeheartedly. Humans have to act more humanely towards other forms of life and their habitats. The respect for others right to survival is paramount which is fundamental in promoting environmental awareness.
  • Accountability: It is said that the future is either green or not at all. Everyone is accountable for making it happen. One has to consciously be responsible for all the actions taken on a daily level to save energy and cleanliness. The time calls for proactive steps to be taken by the youth for bringing awareness in both the older and younger generations. Taking onus for every wrong done is one step towards a better tomorrow.
  • Determination: Everything is possible if one is determined to achieve. Destination is decided by one’s determination in life to succeed. Likewise, the extent of damage done to the environment although great but can be reversed by determination and zeal. This has to come at every level starting from individuals, organisations, societies and nations. Every bit counts.

Thus, good values trickle down to every sphere of human endeavour and bring prosperity in every dimension.

Mudra Bank

  • Mudra Bank is the vehicle to implement PM Mudra Yojana
  • Ministry: Ministry of Finance
  • MUDRA stands for Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency

Objective

  • The core objective of the bank is to fund the unfunded. It will finance to “Last Mile Financiers” of small/micro businesses. The lending priority will be given to SC/ST enterprises

MUDRA Bank

  • MUDRA Bank will be set up as a statutory body
  • It will regulate and refinance all MFI who lend to MSME engaged in small manufacturing, trade or services.
  • It will partner all state/regional level coordinators to provide easy finance to even the remote investors.

To address the three segments, MUDRA Bank has launched three loan instruments:

  • Shishu: covers loans upto Rs 50,000/-
  • Kishor: covers loans above Rs 50,000/- and upto Rs. 5 lakh
  • Tarun: covers loans above Rs 5 lakh and upto Rs 10 lakh

It provides a loan at low rates to small entrepreneurs.

E. Editorials

Category: ECONOMY

1. Do Mudra loans have credit risks?

Note to the Students:

From a UPSC point of view, this article looks into the Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY), which is an important scheme launched by the Government of India

Background:

The Origins of the Mudra Scheme:

  • The Union Budget presented by the Hon’ble Finance Minister, for FY 2015-16, announced the formation of MUDRA Bank.
    Pursuant to this, MUDRA was registered as a Company in March 2015 under the Companies Act 2013 and as a Non Banking Finance Institution with the RBI on 07 April 2015.
  • Finally, MUDRA was launched by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on 08 April 2015 at a function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.

A look at Micro Enterprises:

  • Micro enterprises constitute a major economic segment in India and provides large employment after the agricultural sector.
  • This segment includes micro units engaged in a) manufacturing, b) processing, c) trading and services sector.
  • It provides employment to nearly 10 crore people.
  • Many of these units are proprietary/single ownership or Own Account enterprises and many a time referred as Non Corporate Small Business sector.

A Note on the Non-Corporate Small Business Sector:

  • The Non-Corporate Small Business Sector (NCSBS) is the economic foundation of India.
  • The NCSBS is perhaps one of the largest disaggregated business ecosystems in the world. However, the NCSBS sustains around 50 crore lives.
  • The sector comprises of a myriad of:
    a) small manufacturing units, b) shopkeepers, c) fruits/vegetable vendors, d) truck & taxi operators, e) food-service units, f) repair shops, g) machine operators, h) small industries, i) artisans, l)food processors, m) street vendors and many others.
  • It is important to note that the formal or institutional architecture has not been able to reach out to them to meet the financial requirements of this sector.
  • The NCSBS is largely self financed or relies on personal networks or moneylenders.
  • It is believed by experts that addressing this need will give a big boost to the economy, failing which, this segment would remain unfunded and a portion of the productive labour force would remain unemployed.

Constraints Faced by the Micro Enterprises:

The various constraints faced by this sector are as listed below:

  • Access to Finance
  • Infrastructure Gaps
  • Lack of growth orientation
  • Skill Development Gaps
  • Policy Advocacy Needs
  • Lack of Market Development/Market Making
  • Knowledge Gaps
  • Information Asymmetry
  • Entry Level Technologies

The Big Challenge:

  • The biggest bottleneck to the growth of entrepreneurship in the Non-Corporate Small Business Sector (NCSBS) is lack of financial support to this sector.
  • The support from the Banks to this sector is meagre, with less than 15% of bank credit going to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
  • A vast majority of the non-corporate sector operates as unregistered enterprises.
  • As a consequence of this, they do not maintain proper Books of Accounts and are not formally covered under taxation areas.
  • Thus, banks find it difficult to lend to them. A majority of this sector does not access outside sources of finance.

What is Micro Finance?

  • Micro Finance is an economic development tool whose objective is to provide income generating opportunities to the people at the bottom of the pyramid.
  • Micro Finance covers a range of services which include, in addition to the provision of credit, many other credit plus services, financial literacy and other social support services.

Micro Units Development & Refinance Agency Ltd (MUDRA):

  • It is taking cognisance of the above issues that the MUDRA  was set up by the Government of India (GoI).
  • This Agency would be responsible for developing and refinancing all Micro-enterprises sector by supporting the finance Institutions which are in the business of lending to micro / small business entities engaged in manufacturing, trading and service activities.
  • MUDRA would partner with Banks, MFIs and other lending institutions at state level /regional level to provide micro finance support to the micro enterprise sector in the country.

The News  

  • Raghuram Rajan, former RBI Governor, in a recent report to Parliament, said that  while non-performing assets arising from corporate loans are a current problem, the government should now focus on the sources of the next crisis.
  • In particular, he warned, the government should refrain from setting ambitious credit targets or waiving loans.
  • Specifically, he called out Mudra loans as those having potential credit risks.
  • He mentioned that both Mudra loans as well as the Kisan Credit Card, while being popular, have to be examined more closely for potential risk. The Credit Guarantee Scheme for the MSME run by the SIDBI is a growing contingent liability and needs to be examined with urgency.

Analysis

Is repayment a challenge?

  • It is important to know what the critics of the scheme say.
  • They believe that too many best practices in loan origination have been neglected in the process of authorising and disbursing loans.
  • There was an instance where the CBI registered a case against a former official of Punjab National Bank for alleged abuse of official position in sanctioning and disbursing 26 Mudra loans amounting to ₹65 lakh.
  • Ensuring repayment still remains to be a challenge. This is observed even though loans are sought by business owners genuinely seeking growth and bankers disburse them with an eye on economic development.
  • A detailed look into this issue reveals much. Firstly, these loans are unsecured, meaning that a collateral which could protect the interests of the bank is not required, unless an asset that is purchased can itself serve as collateral.
  • Secondly, the scheme itself is meant for those who need small amounts, but do not have access to such funds. However, the very nature of the business of such borrowers is susceptible to volatility. Some of these businesses may choose one location for their place of business on a day, and another elsewhere in their city the next day.
  • Thirdly, the public banking system may not be staffed for the work this may involve. When it comes to collection, bank staff may choose to go after one loan with outstanding of Rs. 10 lakh, for example, rather than 10 loans of Rs. 1,00,000 each.

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. The lowdown on cases before new CJI

Note to the Students: This issue is important from the perspective of the judiciary in India which is an important topic under the Indian Polity syllabus. However, the larger issue which needs to be discussed here is relating to the issue of pendency of cases in the judiciary. The issue of pendency of cases has been dealt with extensively in the following section covered on our website: https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/judicial-delays-rstv-in-depth

In this article, over and above the points highlighted in the Hindu newspaper, we also touch upon the reasons for the pendency of cases before the judiciary in general.  

The News:

  • Over 54,000 cases are pending in the Supreme Court. However, out of these cases, only a few grab public attention.
  • It is these cases that become the litmus test for the court. Justice Ranjan Gogoi, who assumes office as the Chief Justice of India on October 3, has many cases before him which would be keenly watched.

A look at the sensitive cases:

  • Out of these cases, the most anticipated, is the monitoring of the preparation of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) of Assam.  A series of orders from the Special Bench of Justices Gogoi and Nariman has seen the government publish its second and final draft of the NRC in Assam. Currently, the court is examining a draft standard procedure to receive the objections and claims of over 40 lakh people left out of the draft NRC.
  • The Supreme Court is also hearing petitions on the fate of Rohingya refugees.
  • Further, the fate of the Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri Masjid appeals lies in the balance in the court.
  • Over and above this, the case of the release of seven convicts in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case may bounce back to the court. The State government has requested the Tamil Nadu Governor to release the convicts.
  • It is important to note that even if a challenge comes to the court against the Governor’s decision, whatever it may be, the court has limited power of judicial review of the Governor’s constitutional discretion under Article 161 of the Indian Constitution.
  • Apart from this, one of the biggest challenges for Justice Gogoi would be the pending petitions against Article 35A.
  • Article 35A provides special status, rights and privileges to Jammu and Kashmir. The hearing is scheduled for the second week of January 2019, after the panchayat elections in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Larger Background:

  • The judiciary is meant to guarantee the protection of citizens’ rights at every instance.
  • But in practice, the Indian justice system is not only erratic, but also extremely slow, resulting in justice being denied to a lot of people. According to the National Judicial Data Grid, over 4.2 million cases were pending in the 24 High Courts of India till this February.

Reasons for Judicial Delays:

  • Large number of unfilled judicial vacancies.
  • A long drawn judicial process: This is compounded by the fact that often witnesses are not willing to come forward. The process concerning criminal cases also takes time; this is exacerbated by the fact that it takes time for reports such as medical reports, forensic reports, etc. to be given. There are at times even strikes in Courts that delay the process.   
  • Fast growing population
  • Lack of Infrastructure: Chief Justice, Dipak Misra has described that the lack of infrastructure, as one of the causes.
  • Lack of good quality judges
  • Salaries and Perks of judges: If better salaries and better perks are provided, then better lawyers would be interested in becoming judges. Today, the quality of lawyers interested in becoming judges is poor, because of which the quality of judges is down and because of which the justice delivery system is also suffering.
  • An increasing number of states and central laws
  • Mounting number of appeals
  • Shortage of judges in courts
  • Delay in hearing of cases of common civil rights in High Courts
  • Increase in Appeals in High Courts against the orders of the quasi-judicial bodies
  • The Petition for revision and appeal in a case
  • Continuous adjournment
  • Indiscriminate utilisation of writ rights
  • Inadequate system of monitoring cases
  • Difficulties in tracking trials
  • Efforts to prevent a case during hearing  
  • Lack of will and capability to decide cases
  • Apart from these, there are delays during pre-trial and trial of cases
  • In the courts, we have a certain number of backlog cases that are listed along with regular matters that are being heard. Thus, the judge doesn’t have enough time to finish hearing regular matters, and thereafter go onto backlog matters. Thus, hearings keep getting adjourned, or they keep getting pushed back into the system.  

Concluding Remarks:

Need of the hour:

  • There is a need to appoint 50 judges per 10 lakh population. At the moment, this figure is just 10 judges.
  • The same ratio is 107 in the US, and 50 in England. In the Indian High Courts, there are vacancies for 434 judges.
  • The lack of judges and the increasing number of cases, has burdened the courts and has delayed the settlement of cases.
  • In the courts, we have a certain number of backlog cases that are listed along with regular matters that are being heard. Thus, the judge doesn’t have enough time to finish hearing regular matters, and thereafter go onto backlog matters. Thus, hearings keep getting adjourned, or they keep getting pushed back into the system. This also ties into the fact that lawyers know that the system works this way, so they don’t necessarily prepare for these backlog cases and come and therefore, they ask for adjournments and adjournments are given quite liberally in many courts as well. Thus, this creates a system where backlog cases continue to exist.
  • Apart from corruption, there is a long and costly judicial process and delays in delivering decisions. As far as pending cases are concerned, the Supreme Court has 60,000 pending cases, waiting to be disposed of 38 lakh cases are in the High Courts, and 2 crore, 30 lakh are in the district and subordinate courts, which are waiting to be considered.
  • In Delhi, there are so many cases that are pending that even if 5 minutes is given to each lawsuit, it would take 466 years to settle all the cases.
  • There is a need to rectify the judicial system in the lower courts to speed up trials. Experts say that the maintenance of Courts, their resources, proper facilities in Court premises, and continuous hearing of cases are necessary. Apart from these, there is a need to accelerate civil and criminal hearing. The hearing and disposal of these cases, takes a lot of time. In many criminal cases, the decisions come when the person has almost completed his sentence. Similarly, in the civil cases, the second or sometimes the third generation, receives a final decision.
  • These rising cases of delay in judgements indicate that our judicial system is in a state of collapse. This is the reason that the President of India, Prime Minister, and Chief Justice have also started expressing their concern over this.

One has also witnessed that in the recent years, the Supreme Court has heard challenges against customs and personal law practices.

Currently, we see that the Supreme Court has adjudicated a series of religious issues. These issues include:

  1. triple talaq
  2. temple ban on women of a certain age,
  3. the right to pray of Parsi women, who marry outside their faith, in the Tower of Silence.

A clutch of petitions challenging nikah halala also awaits Justice Gogoi’s attention.

Finally, it is also to be seen whether Justice Gogoi would decide positively on issues such as live-streaming of court proceedings and continue with the publication of Collegium resolutions on the court website.

F. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

G. Prelims Fact

1. Tuberculosis

 

  • Tuberculosis is an infectious, airborne disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly affects the lungs. It can be transmitted from person to person through the air when people with TB cough, sneeze, laugh or speak, spit, propelling the germs into the atmosphere.

Why TB is an issue?

  • With proper diagnosis and treatment, TB can be cured.
  • However, too many people with TB don’t seek care for early symptoms and get properly diagnosed. Of those in whom the disease is detected, many do not complete their treatment.
  • The disease also has been reported to be main cause of deaths related to antimicrobial resistance and the leading killer of people with HIV.
  • The biggest challenge was underreporting and underdiagnosis of TB cases, especially in countries with weak health systems and large unregulated private sectors.

‘90-90-90 target’ by 2035

  • The government has committed to achieve a ‘90-90-90 target’ by 2035 (90% reductions in incidence, mortality and catastrophic health expenditures due to TB).
  • This is premised on improved diagnostics, shorter treatment courses, a better vaccine and comprehensive preventive strategies.

H. Practice Questions for UPSC Prelims Exam

Question 1. Consider the following statements:
 

  1. The H-1B category is an expedient and lawful method to bring foreign-born professionals permanently to the United States, and therefore one of the most widely sought after visa classifications for employment in the United States.
  2. The H-2B visa nonimmigrant program permits employers to hire foreign workers to come temporarily to the United States and perform temporary nonagricultural services or labor on a one-time, seasonal, peakload or intermittent basis.
  3. The L-1 visa facilitates the temporary transfer of foreign worker in the managerial, executive or specialized knowledge category to the U.S. to continue employment with an office of the same employer, its parent branch, subsidiary or affiliate.

Choose the incorrect statements:

  1. Only 1
  2. Both 1 and 2
  3. Both 2 and 3
  4. 1, 2, and 3

See

Answer

 

Question 2. Consider the following statements:
 
  1. Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza bacteria.
  2. Influenza A (H1N1) is the subtype of influenza A that is the very rare cause of human influenza.

Choose the correct statements:

  1. Only 1
  2. Both 1 and 2
  3. Only 2
  4. None of the above

See

Answer
Question 3. Choose the incorrect statement with respect to MUDRA Bank:
  1. It is the vehicle to implement PM Mudra Yojana
  2. It works under the Ministry of Finance
  3. MUDRA Bank will be set up as a non – statutory body
  4. It will partner all state/regional level coordinators to provide easy finance to even the remote investors.

See

Answer
 
 

I. Practice Questions for UPSC Mains Exam

  1. Arresting a man for triple talaq in one instance can actually destroy families. Critically analyse the statement in the context of triple talaq bill.

  2. The Donald Trump administration is moving ahead with a proposal to end work permits for spouses of H-1B workers in the United States. Examine the impact of this decision on India.

  3. We have not inherited the Earth from our forefathers but have borrowed it from our children – What do you understand by this statement?

Also, check previous Daily News Analysis

 

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