The causes of the Khilafat movement are as follows:
- World War I had ended in a defeat for Ottoman Turkey, dealing a fatal blow to the centuries-old Ottoman Empire
- There were rumours and speculation that a harsh treaty was imposed on the Ottoman caliph by the victorious allies that would limit the powers of the leader of the Islamic world.
- Thus to protect the powers of the Caliph a committee was formed in 1919 that would spearhead a movement to restore the Ottoman Caliphate.
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