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Chapter 2: Nutrition in Animals

Fill in the blanks.

  1. The major points of nutrition that are in humans are_________ , ___________ , _________ , _________ and __________.
  2. ________is the largest gland in human body.
  3. The stomach releases hydrochloric acids and _______ juices which directly acts on the food.
  4. The finger like growth in the inner wall of the small intestine are called  _________.
  5. Food digested by amoeba is stored in a ________.

Ans:  1. digestion, absorption, ingestion, assimilation, egestion.  2. Liver.   3. Digestive  4. villi. 5.food vacuole

 

Q1. True or false:

  1. Digestion always starts with starch in the stomach : (T\F)
  2. Food gets mixed in saliva with the help of our tongue : (T\F)
  3. Bile is stored by the gall bladder : (T\F)
  4. The swallowed grass is brought by the ruminants as they chew it for sometime: (T\F)

Ans:  1. F  2. T  3. T  4. T

 

Q2. Choose the correct answer:

1.  Where is the fat digested?   

a. mouth         b. stomach            c. small intestine              d. large intestine.

2.Undigested food is mainly absorbed through the water in the:

a. Stomach      b. Food pipe        c. Large intestine            d. small intestine.

Ans:      1. C. small intestine         2. C. large intestine.

 

Q3. Match the following from table 1 to table 2:

 

                        Table1

 

                                Table2

   

                     Food components

                     Carbohydrates

                     Proteins

                      Fats

 

      Sugar

      Amino acids

      Fatty acids and glycerol

      Products of design

Ans:

 

                        Table1

 

                        Table2

   

                     Food components

                     Carbohydrates

                     Proteins

                     Fats

 

        Products of design

        Sugar

        Amino acids

        Fatty acids and glycerol

 

 

Q4. What do you mean by villi? Mention their location and function.

Ans:

In the inner walls of our small intestine, there are finger like projections called Villi. It increases the surface area for absorption for digested food.

 

Q5. Where is bile produced? Which component is helpful for the digestion of fats?

Ans:

Liver produces a fluid called bile. In gallbladder, the bile juice is stored in a sac, which helps in the digestion of fats in our body.

 

Q6. Which is that type of carbohydrate that is not digested by humans but digested by ruminants? Explain why it is so.

Ans:

Ruminants digest a carbohydrate called Cellulose. They have a structure in the shape of a sac between the large intestine and the small intestine. Certain bacteria present in the ruminants get the food digested by the use of cellulose which is not actually present in humans.

 

Q7. Why do you think Glucose gives you instant energy?

Ans:

With the help of oxygen, there is an easy break down of glucose in the cell which gives instant energy to all the organisms. For glucose, digestion is not needed since it gets absorbed directly into the blood.

 

Q8. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Food absorption is done by _______________
  2. Food is chewed by ____________
  3. Bacteria is killed by ____________
  4. The complete food digestion occurs in  _____________
  5. Faeces formation is carried out in  _____________

Ans: a. Small intestine b. Mouth c. Stomach d. Small intestine e. Large intestine.

 

Q9. Give one difference and similarity between amoeba and human nutrition.

Ans:    

Amoeba takes the food by  temporary finger projections called pseudopodia. The pseudopodia circles the food  forming a vacuole. The digestive enzymes present in the cytoplasm enter the vacuole and breakdowns the food into small particles, which are water soluble. Thus the food gets digested from the food vacuole, spreads through the body of Amoeba. A single part of the absorbed food is thereby used to obtain subsequent forms of energy through the process called as respiration and some thereby is used for the massive growth of the Amoeba cell structure. The food that is undigested is moved through  the top surface of the Amoeba cell structure and it is ejected by getting thrown out of the huge rupture of the membrane cell.  Thus the difference and similarity is as given below:

 

Difference: Pseudopodia help in capturing food for amoeba and to engulf it. Mouth helps in taking food for humans.

Similarity: Food vacuole helps in secreting the digestive juices in amoeba. And in humans, stomach and small intestine help in secreting the digestive juices.

 

10. Match table 1 with table 2:

            Table 1           Table 2
1.       Salivary gland

2.       Liver

3.       Stomach

4.       Small intestine

5.       Large intestine

6.       rectum

       1. bile juice secretion

       2. Saliva secretion

       3. Storage of undigested food

       4. Digestion is completed

       5. Absorption of water

       6. Acid release

 

 

 Ans:

            Table 1           Table 2
1.       Salivary gland

2.       Liver

3.       Stomach

4.       Small intestine

5.       Large intestine

6.       rectum

       2. Saliva secretion

       1. bile juice secretion

       6. Acid release

       4. Digestion is completed

       5. Absorption of water

       3. Storage of undigested food

 

 

 

Q11. Label the given diagram:

12

Ans:

13

 

Q12. Discuss whether humans can survive on raw leafy veggies and grasses.

Ans:

We know that humans, animals, bacteria, fungi do not have the capacity to manufacture their own food. They completely rely on automatic producers called autotrophs which trap the solar energy from the sunlight and manufacture their own food in the form called glucose. So, for survival purposes, green veggies and grass provide us basic help in providing energy.

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