Flashcards For NEET Biology - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Flashcards for NEET Biology are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for Biotechnology: Principles and Processes. These flashcards on Biotechnology: Principles and Processes are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Flashcards For NEET Biology – Biotechnology: Principles and Processes, covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Biology. Solve NEET Biology MCQs to check your understanding and outperform in the exam.

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Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

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Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Genetic engineering

Manipulation and alteration of the genetic makeup of organisms using biotechnology

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is used

An organism with a desired trait is generated

Bioprocess engineering

Use of biotechnology in chemical engineering processes to manufacture products from living organisms in a large quantity

E.g. vitamins, vaccines, antibiotics, etc.


Extrachromosomal, circular DNA, which replicates autonomously

E.g. commonly present in bacteria

Recombinant DNA (rDNA)

DNA formed by combining DNA pieces or desired genes of two different species or organisms

Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer produced the first artificial rDNA by adding antibiotic-resistant genes to the plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium

Restriction enzymes

Molecular scissors, restriction endonucleases

They cut the DNA at a specific palindromic sequence forming sticky ends

Werner Arber, Hamilton Smith, and Daniel Nathans discovered

Hind II– the first restriction endonuclease


Isolated from E.coli RY13

Recognition site, where the enzyme cuts is G/AATTC (5’→3’) and in the complementary strand it is CTTAA/G (3’→5’)

Discovered in Boyer’s UCSF lab

DNA Ligase

Joins the sticky ends of DNA fragments cut by restriction enzymes

Joins Okazaki fragments of lagging strand during replication

Paul Berg

Father of genetic engineering

Carried out gene-splicing experiments

Added genes of lambda phage virus into DNA of SV-40 virus

Received Nobel prize in 1980


DNA carriers for transferring the desired gene or DNA fragment into the host

E.g. plasmids (pBR322, Ti), bacteriophages (λ phage)


E.coli plasmid

Origin of replication- ori

Selectable markers- ampicillin and tetracycline resistant genes, i.e. ampR and tetR

Restriction sites- BamH I, Sal I (in tetR gene), Hind III, EcoR I, Pvu II, Pst I (in ampR gene), Cla I, etc.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

In vitro synthesis of multiple copies of genes of interest, invented by Kary Mullis

The oligonucleotide primer is used after denaturation- Annealing

Primer is extended using thermostable DNA polymerase, i.e. Taq polymerase isolated from Thermus aquaticus (bacterium)

Gene transfer

Introducing foreign DNA into host cell

Using vector

Without vector- microinjection (direct injection of rDNA into the nucleus of animal cells)

Biolistics or gene gun- plant cells are bombarded with microparticles of gold or tungsten coated with DNA


The process of cutting and extracting separated DNA pieces from gel electrophoresis

Downstream processing

The process of separation and purification to make the finished product after biosynthesis

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