What is Hybridization?
The valence band theory was introduced by Heitler and London which is based on the concept of formation of covalent bonds, but later on, this theory was improved by Linus Pauling who introduced this concept. Hybridization is defined as the concept of mixing two atomic orbitals with the same energy levels to give a degenerated new type of orbitals. This intermixing is based on quantum mechanics.
The atomic orbitals of the same energy level can only take part in hybridization and both full filled and half-filled orbitals can also take part in this process provided they have equal energy. During the process, the atomic orbitals of similar energy are mixed together such as the mixing of two ‘s’ orbitals or two ‘p’ orbital’s or mixing of an ‘s’ orbital with a ‘p’ orbital or ‘s’ orbital with a ‘d’ orbital.
Types of hybridization:
- This type involves mixing of one ‘s’ orbital and one ‘p’ orbital of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as an sp hybridized orbital.
- The mixture of s and p orbital and the formed sp orbital is maintained at 1800.
- Example of sp-hybridized is: BeCl2
- This kind involves mixing of one ‘s’ orbital and two ‘p’ orbital’s of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp2.
- A mixture of s and p orbital formed in trigonal symmetry and is maintained at 1200.
- Example of sp2 hybridized is: Ethylene (C2H4)
- This type involves mixing of one ‘s’ orbital and three ‘p’ orbital’s of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp3.
- A mixture of s and p orbitals formed is in tetrahedral symmetry and is maintained at 109.280.
- Example of sp3 hybridization: Ethane (C2H6)
- It involves mixing of one ‘s’ orbital, three ‘p’ orbital’s and one ‘d’ orbital of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp3d hybridized.
- The mixture of s, p and d orbital’s forms trigonal bipyramidal symmetry.
- Example: Phosphorus pentachloride(PCl5)
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