Energy

Energy is a backbone of complete production activity. Any production activity cannot operate without energy as it an important aspect of a development process. Not only in the industrial sector but also in agriculture energy is used on a large scale. This energy is used in operations like transportation and operations of pesticides, fertilizers, and farm equipment. It also plays an important part in households for household lighting, cooking, and heating.

Sources of Energy

  • Commercial Energy- This type of energy is usually consumed by commercial entities and not by the residential or households. This energy is accessible to the consumers at a price to be paid and is a non-renewable source of energy. Commercial sources like coal, petroleum, and electricity are bought and sold it to the users. Sometimes the use of a commercial source of energy is taken as a sign of economic development of a country.
  • Non- Commercial Energy- This sources of energy is used by people for household purpose. It indicates the standard of living of a country. Non-commercial energy is available free of cost to the users. Few examples are cow dung, firewood, and agriculture waste.

Conventional & Non-Conventional Source of Energy

  • Conventional Source of Energy- This source of energy is natural energy resources, that has been used for many years to produce light, heat, food, and electricity. The energy is further divided into Commercial and Non-commercial sources of energy. This energy is non-renewable and is available in limited quantity apart from hydro-electric power. Few types of conventional energy are Coal, natural gas, electricity, thermal power, cow-dung, straw, etc.
  • Non-Conventional Source of Energy- This source of energy is available in abundance in nature as it doesn’t get exhausted easily and are renewable. It is economical, eco-friendly and used for domestic purposes. Few types of non- conventional energy are wind, sun, biological waste, etc to produce power and heat.

Significance of Energy

Q.1- WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ENERGY? WHAT ARE THE TWO SOURCES OF ENERGY?

MEANING OF ENERGY

  • Energy is a lifeline of entire production activity. In fact, any production activity cannot take place without electricity.

(1)AGRICULTURE

  • Agriculture needs the energy to operate tube wells and thrashers.

(2)INDUSTRIES

  • It is essential for the development of industries.
  • Helps in running machinery and manufacturing goods.
  • It helps in transportation of raw material and finished goods.

(3)SERVICES

  • Services like: Banking, communication, etc. are not possible without electricity.

FOLLOWING ARE THE TWO SOURCES OF ENERGY:

(1)COMMERCIAL SOURCES

  • Commercial sources are coal, petroleum, and electricity as they are bought and sold.
  • More than 50 percent of energy sources are consumed in India.

(2)NON-COMMERCIAL SOURCES

  • Non-commercial sources of energy are firewood, agricultural waste, and dried dung.
  • These are non-commercial as they are found in nature/forests.

Q.2- EXPLAIN THE VARIOUS CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY.

ANSWER: Following are the various conventional sources of energy:

(1) COAL

  • It is one of the major and primary sources of energy in India.
  • India is rich in coal production.
  • Production of coal in India increased from 328 lakh tonnes in 1950-51 to 5668 lakh tonnes in 2013-14 and 6020 lakh tonnes in 2014-15
  • 55% of total energy is produced by coal, which has increased to 72.8% in 2013.
  • It is estimated that India has 3,01,564 million tonnes of coal reserves in 2014.
  • Some principal consumers of coal are,

    1. Thermal Power Stations.

    2. Steel Plants.

    3. Railway etc.

(2) PETROLEUM

  • Production of petroleum in India is very less than its demand.
  • This forces India to import petroleum at large scale.
  • Domestic production of crude oil was 38 million tonnes in the last four years (2010-13) whereas demand in 2013-14 was about 227 million tonnes.

(3) NATURAL GAS

  • This is mainly used as a raw material in fertilizers, petroleum products and also as cooking gas (LPG) in Households.
  • Main reserves of natural gas are found in Mumbai, Gujarat, Tripura, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Rajasthan.

(4) ELECTRICITY

  • Electricity is the most useful and convenient source of energy in India.
  • Three main sources of electricity in India are:

    1. Thermal Power Stations.

    2. Hydro-electricity Stations.

    3. Atomic Power Stations.

Q.3- EXPLAIN THE VARIOUS NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY.

ANSWER: Following are the various non-conventional sources of energy:

(1) SOLAR ENERGY

Meaning:

  • Solar energy is the energy received by the earth from the sun.
  • This energy is in the form of solar radiation, which makes use of the production of solar electricity possible.

Uses:

  • It is used for water heating, cooking, lighting and for agricultural and industrial operations.

Benefits:

  • It requires little maintenance cost, and thus the more economical source of energy.
  • It is pollution free and environment-friendly.

(2) WIND ENERGY

Meaning:

  • Energy generated by wind power is known as wind energy.
  • India has very large wind power potential, which is being harnessed through the ‘Wind Energy Programme’.

Uses:

  • Wind energy generated through windmills is used for minor irrigation and agricultural operations.

Benefits:

  • The maintenance cost of wind energy is comparatively lowest.
  • It is also pollution free and environment-friendly.

(3) BIOGAS

Meaning:

  • It refers to a gas made by fermentation of agricultural and animal waste.
  • The technology for conversion of animal waste into biogas is well developed and more than 15 lakh biogas plants are already in operations.
  • It is also known as ‘Gobbar gas’.

Uses:

  • It is a source of fuel which is being used in rural areas for cooking etc.

Benefits:

  • It is a cheap and efficient fuel and its feedstock is renewable.
  • It helps in getting rid of animal and agricultural waste.

Q.1 ___________ refers to the sources of energy, which are in use for a long time and can be stored.

a. Conventional Source

b. Non-Conventional Source

c. Commercial Energy

d. Non-Commercial Energy

Q.2 ___________ refers to the sources of energy which have recently come into use.

a. Conventional Source

b. Non-Conventional Source

c. Commercial Energy

d. Non-Commercial Energy

Q.3 Coal, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity. are examples of __________.

a. Conventional Source

b. Non-Conventional Source

c. Commercial Energy

d. Both (a) and (c)

ANSWERS

1-a, 2-b, 3-d

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