What is the Gender Pay Gap?

Gender Pay Gap or gender wage gap is the average difference between the remuneration for working men and working women. Research and studies shows that women are paid less than men. As per the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Gender Gap report of 2018, India is ranked at 108th position out of 149 countries. Iceland topped the list for the 10th consecutive year. Global Gender Gap ranking is concluded taking into consideration many indicators. In the Wage Equality indicator India is ranked at 72nd position. In the economic opportunities and participation index, India is ranked very low at 142nd position out of 149 countries. This resulted in the overall reduction of India’s rank at Global Gender Gap ranking.

Aspirants would find this topic very helpful in the IAS Exam.

What are the Causes of Gender Discrimination in India?

There are many reasons behind the gender discrimination in India which are listed below.

  1. Economic inequalities – low participation rate in the labour force, gender pay gap, property rights. Although there are laws to protect women’s property rights it is weakly enforced.
  2. Occupational inequalities – very few businesses in India are owned by women. There are fewer females in the profession of teachers, scientists and military.
  3. Educational inequalities – There is a huge dropout of girls from school education and many of them don’t attain higher education.
  4. Health and Survival inequalities – Low birth sex ratio of girl child caused by selective abortion due to preference for boy child.

What is Equal Remuneration Act 1976?

It is an Act passed in 1976 by the Government of India to bring in pay parity to men and women workers who are working on same work or work of a similar nature. Under this law no employer can discriminate against women in recruitment, training, transfer and promotions except in jobs where employment of women are restricted or prohibited as per law.

Why is there a Wage Gap in Sports?

The list of reasons which results in the wage gap of male and female sports persons are given below.

  1. Endorsement deals
  2. Media coverage
  3. Difference in Economic returns of male and female sports.
  4. Biological difference


The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2020.


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