Amid concerns over the rising air pollution, the Union government is going to notify norms soon for vehicles to shift to clean fuels under Euro V and VI emission standards.
- According to the draft notification, old vehicles will need to switch to Euro V and Euro VI norms from April 1, 2019 and April 1, 2021 respectively.
- The new norms are planned to be introduced in new vehicles from 2020 and 2022.
- At present, BS-IV auto fuels are being supplied in over 30 cities, and the rest of the country has BS-III fuels.
- Earlier, the government planned the implementation of BS V and BS VI emission norms nationwide by 2020 and 2024 respectively. However, the government decided to advance the dates.
Euro V and Euro VI norms
- The first European exhaust emissions standard for passenger cars was introduced in 1970.
- The latest standard, ‘Euro 6’, applies to new type approvals from September 2014 and all new cars from September 2015 and reduces some pollutants by 96% compared to the 1992 limits.
- Euro 5 tightened the limits on particulate emissions from diesel engines and all diesel cars needed particulate filters to meet the new requirements. There was some tightening of NOx limits too (28% reduction compared to Euro 4) as well as, for the first time, a particulates limit for petrol engines – applicable to direct injection engines only.
- Addressing the effects of very fine particle emissions, Euro 5 introduced a limit on particle numbers for diesel engines in addition to the particle weight limit.
The Euro 6 standard imposes a further, significant reduction in NOx emissions from diesel engines (a 67% reduction compared to Euro 5) and establishes similar standards for petrol and diesel.
- Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) – replacing some of the intake air (containing 80% nitrogen) with recycled exhaust gas – reduces the amount of nitrogen available to be oxidised to NOx during combustion but further exhaust after treatment may be required in addition to the Diesel Particulate Filters required to meet Euro 5.
Euro 6 diesel cars may also be fitted with:
- A NOx adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) which stores NOx and reduces it to Nitrogen over a catalyst
- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) which uses an additive (Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)/AdBlue) containing urea injected into the exhaust to convert NOx into Nitrogen and water.
- The use of Cerium, a fluid injected into the fuel tank each time the vehicle is refuelled which assists the DPF regeneration by lowering the temperature needed for regeneration.
BS-III and BS- IV
- The auto emission norms are emission standards which are adopted by the government of a nation to check the air pollutants released from any internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
- These norms were introduced in India in 2000, when the Bharat Stage norms were adopted by the then government, based on the European emission norms.
- Each stage specifies a certain limit on the pollutants released, which is controlled by the type of fuel made by the oil companies and the upgradations and modifications made by the auto firms to their vehicles to control the pollutants released from the vehicle.
- India had enforced Bharat stage III norms across the country since October 2010. In 13 major cities, Bharat stage IV emission norms were put in place since April 2010.
- BS-IV fuels contain 50 parts per million (ppm) sulphur, while BS-V and BS-VI grade fuel will have 10 ppm sulphur.
- Currently, BS-IV auto fuels are being supplied in whole of northern India covering J&K, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi, parts of Rajasthan and western Uttar Pradesh. The rest of the country has BS-III grade fuel.