Alauddin Khilji - Khilji Dynasty [Medieval History Of India For UPSC]

The Khiljis served under the Ilbari dynasty of Delhi. Malik Firuz was the founder of the Khilji Dynasty who was originally the Ariz-I-Mumalik appointed by Kaiqubad during the days of the decline of the Ilbari Dynasty.

This article provides all relevant information of the Khilji Dynasty. This topic is important for candidates preparing for the IAS Exam.

Alauddin Khilji – Khilji Dynasty (Sultanate of Delhi) (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

Important Rulers of the Khilji Dynasty

The important rulers of the Khilji dynasty are stated below:

Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji (1290-1296 A.D.)

  • He was the founder of Khilji Dynasty.
  • He was also called as “Clemency Jalal-uddin” as he followed peace and wanted to rule without violence. 

Domestic Policies of Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji

  • He suppressed Malik Chhajju’s revolt at Kara
  • He appointed Ala-ud-din Khilji as the Governor of Kara. Alauddin was his son-in-law and also nephew.

Mongol Invasion

  • In 1292 A.D. Jalal-ud-din defeated the Mongols who had come up to Sunam.

 End of Jalal-ud-din

  • Jalal-ud-din was treacherously murdered by Ala-ud-din Khilji his son-in-law.
  • Jalal-ud-din’s policy of peace was not liked by many.

Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296-1316 A.D.)

  • In 1296 A.D. Ala-ud-din Khilji succeeded Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji and ascended the throne.

Ala-ud-din Khilji Invasions in the North

  • Ala-ud-din Khiliji’s generals namely, Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan conquered Gujarat.
  • He captured Ranthambore and killed Hamir Deva its ruler.
  • He also captured Malwa, Chittor, Dhar, Mandu, Ujjain, Marwar, Chanderi and Jalor.

Ala-ud-din Khilji Invasions in the South

  • He was the first Sultan who attacked South India.
  • He sent his confidante and general Malik Kafur against the rulers of the south.
  • Prataprudra-II of Warangal, Ramachandra Deva, the Yadava king of Devagiri, and Vira Ballala-III the Hoysala king were defeated.
  • He constructed a mosque in Rameswaram.
  • The kingdoms of the south acknowledged the power of Alauddin Khilji and paid his monetary tributes.

The Mongol Invasion

  • Ala-ud-din successfully resisted the Mongol invasion more than 12 times. 

To know more about Alaudin Khilji victories, refer to the linked article.

Domestic Policies of Alauddin Khilji

  • Ala-ud-din followed the Divine Right Theory of Kingship.
  • He introduced four ordinances to prevent repeated revolts.
  • He impounded pious grants and free grants of lands
  • He restructured the spy system.
  • He banned social parties and wine.
  • He introduced a permanent standing army.
  • He started the system of branding of horses and descriptive roster of individual soldiers to inhibit corruption.
  • He fixed the prices of necessary commodities which were below the normal market rates.
  • He strictly prohibited black marketing.
  • Revenue was collected in cash and not in kind.
  • He followed discriminatory policies towards the Hindus and imposed the Jizya, a grazing tax and a house tax on the Hindu community. 

Marketing System

  • Officers called Diwan-i-riyasat were appointed in the offices called Shahana-i-mandi to standardize the market.
  • Merchants should have to register themselves in the office (Shahana-i-mandi) before selling their goods at the fixed rates.

Ala-ud-din-Khilji’s Estimate

  • He was the first to bring the standing army system.
  • He constructed Alai Darwaza, the Palace of a thousand pillars and the Fort of Siri.

Successors after Ala-ud-din-Khilji

  • Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah (1316-1320 A.D.)
  • Nasir-ud-din Khusrav Shah (1320A.D.)

His successors were weak. 

End of the Dynasty

  • Ala-ud-din Khilji died in 1316 A.D.
  • Successors of Ala-ud-din-Khilji were weak rulers.
  • Eventually, in 1320 A.D. the Governor of Punjab Ghazi Malik led a group of nobles, conquered Delhi and captured the throne.
  • Ghazi Malik assumed the name ‘Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq’ at Delhi and founded the Tughluq Dynasty, a dynasty of rulers.

Alauddin Khilji – Khilji Dynasty (Sultanate of Delhi) (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

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