NCERT Notes: Tughlaq Dynasty – Delhi Sultanate [Medieval Indian History Notes For UPSC]

In this article, find NCERT notes on Tughlaq Dynasty as part of BYJU’S Medieval Indian History Notes for UPSC and other competitive exams.

The notes have been aligned as per the UPSC Syllabus.

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik (1320 – 1325 A.D.)

  • Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.
  • He rose from a humble origin.

Domestic and Foreign Policies

  • Ghiyas-ud-din reinstated order in his empire.
  • He gave more importance to postal arrangements, judicial, irrigation, agriculture, and police.
  • In 1320A.D. he ascended the throne
  • He brought Bengal, Utkala or Orissa, and Warangal under his control
  • The Mongol leaders who invaded North India were seized and confined by him.

End of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq rule

  • In 1325 A.D. Ghiyas-ud-din was crushed to death while attending an event for his victories in Bengal.
  • Junakhan, the crown prince succeeded him.

Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-1361A.D.)

  • In 1325 A.D. Junakhan, the crown prince sworn the title Muhammad-bin-Tughluq.
  • Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq stood for the administrative and political unity of India.
  • In 1327 A.D. he captured Warangal.

Domestic Policies of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq

  • To fill the empty treasury, he raised taxes in the Doab region.
  • Many people ran away to the forests to avoid heavy taxes due to which cultivation was neglected and severe food shortage occurred.
  • He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri to protect his capital and ordered the common people and government officials to shift to Devagiri, after many difficulties he ordered them to return to Delhi.
  • He introduced the copper currency system.
  • The value of coins dropped; hence he had to withdraw the copper token currency.
  • To conquer Khurasan, Iraq, and Transoxiana, he raised an army of 3,70,000 men.
  • Mohammed-bin-Tughluq’s national treasure had a great burden due to the policy of huge presents given to Tamashirin, the Mongol leader in order to avoid Mongol Invasion.
  • Mohammed-bin-Tughluq’s domestic policies were good but due to faulty implementation measures, they failed.
  • The decline of the Delhi Sultanate is claimed due to his hasty decisions and defective policy implementation.

Firoz Tughlaq (1351-1 388 A.D.)

  • In 1351A.D. Firoz Tughlaq was the son of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq’s younger brother. He succeeded the throne.

Administrative Reforms

  • He withdrew all Taquavi (agricultural) loans granted by Mohammed-bin-Tughlaq.
  • He raised the salary of the revenue officers.
  • He brought to an end to all unlawful and unjust taxes.
  • He collected four important taxes which are:
    • Kharaj- 1/10 of the produce of the land
    • Khams- 1/5 of the war booty
    • Jizya-Poll Tax
    • Zakat-Tax on Muslims for specific religious purposes
  • He constructed 150 wells, 100 bridges, and 50 dams, and also dug many irrigation canals.
  • He constructed towns like Firozabad, Hissar, Jaunpur, and Fatehabad.
  • Firoz banned all kinds of damages and torture.
  • He levied Jizya on the Brahmins.
  • He established hospitals (Dar-ul-shafa), Marriage Bureau, (Diwani-i-kherat) and an Employment Bureau.
  • He also established Diwan-i-lstibqaq to give financial aid to the poor.

Foreign Policy

  • Firoz Tughlaq surrounded Bengal in 1353 A.D. and 1359A.D.
  • He seized Jainagar.
  • He devastated the Jagannath Temple at Puri.

Importance of Firoz Tughlaq in Medieval Indian History

Firoz proved his prominence by

  • His generous measures and contributions to the affluence of the people.
  • Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi is an autobiography of Firoz Tughlaq.
  • He patronized scholar Zia-ud-din Barani.
  • During his reign, a number of Sanskrit books on medicine, science and arts were translated into Persian.
  • Kutab- Feroz Shahi – a book which dealt with Physics

Later Tughlaqs – successors of Firoz

  • Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq Shah II
  • Abu Bakr Shah,
  • Nasir-ud-din Mohammed Tughlaq

End of Tughlug Dynasty

  • The successors of Firoz were not very strong or competent.
  • By the end of the 14th century, most of the territories became independent.
  • Only Punjab and Delhi remained under the Tughlaqs.
  • Timur’s invasion took place during the Tughlug period.

Timur’s Invasion (1398 A.D.)

  • The fabulous wealth of India attracted Timur the ruler of Samarqand.
  • During the period of Nasir-ud-din Mohammed Tughlaq, he invaded India.
  • In 1398 A.D. Timur captured Delhi and caused the annihilation of the Tughlaq dynasty by pillaging and slaughtering people.