- The Deccan or the Dakshinapatha regions are the part of Southern India.
- The Vindhya and Satpura mountains, the Narmada and Tapti rivers, and the dense forests separate the Deccan from Northern India.
- The Deccan part witnessed the rise of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas during the medieval period.
- This period also witnessed the expansion of the Delhi Sultanate like the Khiljis and the Tughluqs into South India.
The Chalukyas (6th -12th century A.D.)
The Chalukyas period can be broadly divided into three and they are:
- The Early Western Chalukyas (6th-8th century A.D.)
- The Later Western Chalukyas (10th-12th century A.D.)
- The Eastern Chalukyas (7th-12th century A.D.)
The Early Western Chalukyas (6th-8thcentury A.D.)
- They rose into power in the 6th century A.D in Karnataka.
- Vatapi (modern Badami) in the Bijapur district was their capital.
- Jayasimha and Ramaraya, Pulakesin-I (543-566.A.D) were humble rulers of the early Western Chalukyas.
Pulakesin II (610-642 A.D.)
- Pulakesin II is the real founder and greatest ruler of this dynasty
- He defeated Gangas, Malavas and Gurjaras.
- In 637 A.D he defeated Harsha’s attack in the north.
- He struggled constantly with the Pallavas in the south.
- Pulakesin II defeated the Pallava King Mahendravarma I after which he crossed the Cauvery.
- Made friendly alliances with the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas.
- Pulakesin II lost his life during the war.
The other important rulers of this dynasty
- Vikramaditya II
Kirtivarman II (746 AD – 753 AD)
- He is the last Chalukya King of Badami.
Later Western Chalukyas of Kalyani (10th -12th century A.D)
The founder of this dynasty brought the Rashtrakuta rule to an end.
The important rulers of this dynasty are:
- Someswara IV was the last ruler
Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (7th -12th century A.D)
- Vishnu Vardhana brother of Pulakesin-II was the founder of the Eastern Chalukya Empire of Vengi.
- Kulothunga Chola (1071-1122 A.D.) is one of their descendants.
- He was crowned as a Chola ruler.
Contributions of the Chalukyas
- They followed Hinduism.
- Ravikirti a Jain, the court poet of Pulakesin-II composed the Aihole Inscription.
- Great patrons of architecture
- 70 Vishnu temples in Aihole were built; hence Aihole has been called the ‘Cradle of Indian Temple architecture.
- Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal
- Telugu literature developed during this period.
The Virupaksha temple
- Lokamahadevi built this temple and she was the queen of Vikramaditya II.
- In front of the Hall of the Priests or Antarala there is a pillared Mandapam or a meeting place for the people.
- The Virupaksha temple is built on the model of the Kailasanatha temple at Kancheepuram.
The Rashtrakutas (8th-10th century A.D.)
The Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra (11th -14th Century A.D.)
Vinayaditya (1006 -1022 A.D.)
- Vinayaditya carved out a trivial territory of Mysore with Sosavir as capital and ruled over it.
Vishnuvardhana (1108–1152 A.D.)
- He was the first distinguished ruler of Vinayaditya’s family.
- He shifted his capital to Dwarasamudra.
- He captured Gangavadi from Kulothunga Chola and Gangavadi served as a buffer state between the Chalukyas and the Chola Empire.
Vira Ballala – II (1173-1220 A.D.)
- Vira Ballala – II the next important ruler of the dynasty.
- He defeated Billama V of Yadava Dynasty.
- He detained the independence of the Hoysalas.
Narasimhan-II (1220-1235 A.D.)
- Narasimhan-II lost the territory between Krishna and Tungabhadra to a Yadava ruler, Singhana.
- He defeated Maravarman Sundara Pandya
- Restored Rajaraja-III to the Chola throne.
- He erected the pillar of victory at Rameshwaram.
Ballala III (1291-1342 A.D)
- Ballala III was the last great ruler of this dynasty.
- In 1310A.D. he was defeated by Malik Kafur.
- In 1342 A.D. he fell victim to the Sultans of Madurai.
- His son Ballala IV continued his struggle with the Muslims.
- With his death the Hoysala Kingdom came to end.
- The Hoysalas paved the way for the rise of Mysore into a big Kingdom.
- They were great patrons of art, architecture and literature.
- The Hoysalas encouraged Kannada literature.
The Kakatiyas of Warangal (12th -14th Century A.D.)
Prola-II (1110 -1158 A.D.)
- The Kakatiya ruler captured the territory between the Krishna and the Godavari from the Chalukyas and ruled over it with Hanumakonda as his capital.
- He was son of Prola II shifted the capital to Warangal.
Ganapathi (1199-1261. A.D.)
- He was the next remarkable ruler of this dynasty.
- He captured territories up to Kanchi from the Cholas.
- He invaded Kalinga and Western Andhra.
(Rudrambha) (1261 -1291 .A.D.)
- She was the daughter of Ganapati.
- She abdicated the throne in favour of her grandson Prataparudhra-II
Prataparudhra-II (1291-1326 A.D.)
- Malik Kafur invaded Warangal in 1309 A.D, during his rule.
- Prataprudra – II paid Malik Kafur an immense treasure in return.
- Ulugh Khan, the son of Ghiasud-din Tughluq captured Warangal in 1323 A.D. and sent Prataparudra II to Delhi
- His successors continued their struggle with the rulers of the Tughluq dynasty
- He is the last nominal ruler of this dynasty.
- He was sentenced to death by Muhammad Shah I.
KOHINOOR (the famous diamond belonged to Kakatiyas)
- KOHINOOR unearthed in Kollur on the banks of the Krishna River belonged to the Kakatiyas.
- The Kakatiyas encouraged literature, art and architecture.
- The thousand Pillar temple at Hanumakonda was built during their period and stands as an everlasting contribution.
The Yadavas of Devagiri (850–1334 A.D.)
- The Yadavas of Devagiri claimed their descent from the epic hero Lord Krishna.
- They were known as Sevunas because they ruled over Sevuna, the region from Nasik to Devagiri (Daulatabad).
Bhillama V (1 1 75-11 90 A.D.)
- The Yadava ruler took advantage of the declining power of the Later Western Chalukyas of Kalyani and rose to power.
- He defeated Someswara-IV and declared his independence.
- He came into conflict with Vira Balalla-II (1173-1220A.D.), a Hoysala ruler.
- He lost his life in the battle of Lakkundi.
Jaitrapala (1191-1210 A.D.)
- He was son of Bhillama V
- He defeated Kalachuris, Gurjaras and Kakatiyas.
- He was son of Jaitrapala.
- He was the most distinguished ruler of this dynasty.
- He defeated Mahadeva, a Kakatiya ruler.
- He also defeated Vira Ballala-II, the Hoysala ruler and expanded his dominion beyond the River Krishna.
- He invaded Gujarat many times and captured Kolhapur which belonged to Silhara dynasty.
Krishna (1247-1260 A. D)
- Krishna was grandson of Singhana and succeeded him.
Mahadeva (1260-1271 A.D)
- He was brother Krishna.
- He captured North Konkan and ended the Silhara dynasty.
Ramachandra Deva (1271-1 309 A.D.)
- He was the last great ruler of this dynasty.
- Ala-ud-din-Khilji defeated him and made him as a vassal of the Delhi Sultanate.
Sankara Deva (1309 – 1312 A.D.)
- He was the son and successor of Ramachandra Deva
- Malik Kafur defeated and killed him in 1312 A.D.
- Harapala, brother-in-law of Sankara Deva raised the flag against the Khiljis.
- Mubarak, son of Ala-ud-din Khilji defeated and killed Harapala.
Thus the Yadava dynasty came to an end.
Contribution of the Yadavas
- Built during the reign of the Yadavas.
- It was one of the strongest forts in India.
- The Juma Masjid and Chand Minar was added by the Delhi Sultans later.
End of the Deccan Kingdoms
- The attacks on the Deccan Kingdoms by the Sultans of Delhi ever since the rule of Alauddin Khilji led to their decline.