NCERT Notes: Medieval History – The Kingdoms of the Deccan

Subject: Medieval History
Topic: The Kingdoms of the Deccan

THE KINGDOMS OF THE DECCAN
  • The Deccan or the Dakshinapatha regions are the part of Southern India.
  • The Vindhya and Satpura mountains, the Narmada and Tapti rivers, and the dense forests separate the Deccan from Northern India.
  • The Deccan part witnessed the rise of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas during the medieval period.
  • This period also witnessed the expansion of the Delhi Sultanate like the Khiljis and the Tughluqs into South India.

 

The Chalukyas (6th -12th century A.D.)

The Chalukyas period can be broadly divided into three and they are:

  1. The Early Western Chalukyas (6th-8th century A.D.)
  2. The Later Western Chalukyas (10th-12th century A.D.)
  3. The Eastern Chalukyas (7th-12th century A.D.) 

 

The Early Western Chalukyas (6th-8thcentury A.D.)


  • They rose into power in the 6th century A.D in Karnataka.
  • Vatapi (modern Badami) in the Bijapur district was their capital.
  • Jayasimha and Ramaraya, Pulakesin-I (543-566.A.D) were humble rulers of the early Western Chalukyas. 

Pulakesin II (610-642 A.D.)

  • Pulakesin II is the real founder and greatest ruler of this dynasty
  • He defeated Gangas, Malavas and Gurjaras.
  • In 637 A.D he defeated Harsha’s attack in the north.
  • He struggled constantly with the Pallavas in the south.
  • Pulakesin II defeated the Pallava King Mahendravarma I after which he crossed the Cauvery.
  • Made friendly alliances with the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas.
  • Pulakesin II lost his life during the war.

The other important rulers of this dynasty

  • Vikramaditya-I
  • Vijayaditya
  • Vikramaditya II

Kirtivarman II (746 AD – 753 AD)

  • He is the last Chalukya King of Badami.

 

Later Western Chalukyas of Kalyani (10th -12th century A.D)


The founder of this dynasty brought the Rashtrakuta rule to an end.

The important rulers of this dynasty are:

  • Someshwara-II
  • Vikramaditya-VI
  • Vikramaditya-VI
  • Someswara IV was the last ruler 

 

Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (7th -12th century A.D)


  • Vishnu Vardhana brother of Pulakesin-II was the founder of the Eastern Chalukya Empire of Vengi.
  • Kulothunga Chola (1071-1122 A.D.) is one of their descendants.
  • He was crowned as a Chola ruler. 

Contributions of the Chalukyas

  1. They followed Hinduism.
  2. Ravikirti a Jain, the court poet of Pulakesin-II composed the Aihole Inscription.
  3. Great patrons of architecture
  4. 70 Vishnu temples in Aihole were built; hence Aihole has been called the ‘Cradle of Indian Temple architecture.
  5. Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal
  6. Telugu literature developed during this period. 

The Virupaksha temple

  • Lokamahadevi built this temple and she was the queen of Vikramaditya II.
  • In front of the Hall of the Priests or Antarala there is a pillared Mandapam or a meeting place for the people.
  • The Virupaksha temple is built on the model of the Kailasanatha temple at Kancheepuram.

 

The Rashtrakutas (8th-10th century A.D.) 

 

The Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra (11th -14th Century A.D.) 

Vinayaditya (1006 -1022 A.D.)

  • Vinayaditya carved out a trivial territory of Mysore with Sosavir as capital and ruled over it.

Vishnuvardhana (1108–1152 A.D.)

  • He was the first distinguished ruler of Vinayaditya’s family.
  • He shifted his capital to Dwarasamudra.
  • He captured Gangavadi from Kulothunga Chola and Gangavadi served as a buffer state between the Chalukyas and the Chola Empire.

Vira Ballala – II (1173-1220 A.D.)

  • Vira Ballala – II the next important ruler of the dynasty.
  • He defeated Billama V of Yadava Dynasty.
  • He detained the independence of the Hoysalas. 

Narasimhan-II (1220-1235 A.D.)

  • Narasimhan-II lost the territory between Krishna and Tungabhadra to a Yadava ruler, Singhana.
  • He defeated Maravarman Sundara Pandya
  • Restored Rajaraja-III to the Chola throne.
  • He erected the pillar of victory at Rameshwaram.

Ballala III (1291-1342 A.D)

  • Ballala III was the last great ruler of this dynasty.
  • In 1310A.D. he was defeated by Malik Kafur.
  • In 1342 A.D. he fell victim to the Sultans of Madurai.

Ballala IV

  • His son Ballala IV continued his struggle with the Muslims.
  • With his death the Hoysala Kingdom came to end.

Contributions

  • The Hoysalas paved the way for the rise of Mysore into a big Kingdom.
  • They were great patrons of art, architecture and literature.
  • The Hoysalas encouraged Kannada literature.

 

The Kakatiyas of Warangal (12th -14th Century A.D.) 

Prola-II (1110 -1158 A.D.)

  • The Kakatiya ruler captured the territory between the Krishna and the Godavari from the Chalukyas and ruled over it with Hanumakonda as his capital.

Prataparudra-I (1158-1196.A.D.)

  • He was son of Prola II shifted the capital to Warangal.

Ganapathi (1199-1261. A.D.)

  • He was the next remarkable ruler of this dynasty.
  • He captured territories up to Kanchi from the Cholas.
  • He invaded Kalinga and Western Andhra.

(Rudrambha) (1261 -1291 .A.D.)

  • She was the daughter of Ganapati.
  • She abdicated the throne in favour of her grandson Prataparudhra-II

Prataparudhra-II (1291-1326 A.D.)

  • Malik Kafur invaded Warangal in 1309 A.D, during his rule.
  • Prataprudra – II paid Malik Kafur an immense treasure in return.

Ulugh Khan

  • Ulugh Khan, the son of Ghiasud-din Tughluq captured Warangal in 1323 A.D. and sent Prataparudra II to Delhi
  • His successors continued their struggle with the rulers of the Tughluq dynasty

Vinayakadeva

  • He is the last nominal ruler of this dynasty.
  • He was sentenced to death by Muhammad Shah I.

KOHINOOR (the famous diamond belonged to Kakatiyas)

  • KOHINOOR unearthed in Kollur on the banks of the Krishna River belonged to the Kakatiyas.

Contributions

  1. The Kakatiyas encouraged literature, art and architecture.
  2. The thousand Pillar temple at Hanumakonda was built during their period and stands as an everlasting contribution. 

 

The Yadavas of Devagiri (850–1334 A.D.)
  • The Yadavas of Devagiri claimed their descent from the epic hero Lord Krishna.
  • They were known as Sevunas because they ruled over Sevuna, the region from Nasik to Devagiri (Daulatabad).

Bhillama V (1 1 75-11 90 A.D.)

  • The Yadava ruler took advantage of the declining power of the Later Western Chalukyas of Kalyani and rose to power.
  • He defeated Someswara-IV and declared his independence.
  • He came into conflict with Vira Balalla-II (1173-1220A.D.), a Hoysala ruler.
  • He lost his life in the battle of Lakkundi.

Jaitrapala (1191-1210 A.D.)

  • He was son of Bhillama V
  • He defeated Kalachuris, Gurjaras and Kakatiyas.

Singhana (1210-1247A.D.)

  • He was son of Jaitrapala.
  • He was the most distinguished ruler of this dynasty.
  • He defeated Mahadeva, a Kakatiya ruler.
  • He also defeated Vira Ballala-II, the Hoysala ruler and expanded his dominion beyond the River Krishna.
  • He invaded Gujarat many times and captured Kolhapur which belonged to Silhara dynasty.

Krishna (1247-1260 A. D)

  • Krishna was grandson of Singhana and succeeded him.

Mahadeva (1260-1271 A.D)

  • He was brother Krishna.
  • He captured North Konkan and ended the Silhara dynasty.

Ramachandra Deva (1271-1 309 A.D.)

  • He was the last great ruler of this dynasty.
  • Ala-ud-din-Khilji defeated him and made him as a vassal of the Delhi Sultanate.

Sankara Deva (1309 – 1312 A.D.)

  • He was the son and successor of Ramachandra Deva
  • Malik Kafur defeated and killed him in 1312 A.D.
    • Harapala, brother-in-law of Sankara Deva raised the flag against the Khiljis.
    • Mubarak, son of Ala-ud-din Khilji defeated and killed Harapala.

Thus the Yadava dynasty came to an end. 

Contribution of the Yadavas

Devagiri fort

  1. Built during the reign of the Yadavas.
  2. It was one of the strongest forts in India.
  3. The Juma Masjid and Chand Minar was added by the Delhi Sultans later. 

End of the Deccan Kingdoms

  • The attacks on the Deccan Kingdoms by the Sultans of Delhi ever since the rule of Alauddin Khilji led to their decline.

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