Bahmani Kingdom [NCERT Notes for Medieval History Of India For UPSC]

In this article, find NCERT notes on the Bahmani Kingdom. The Bahmani Sultanate is an important topic for the Civil Services Examination preparation.

History is an important subject for UPSC 2023. Candidates preparing for the upcoming examination can complement their history preparation using the following links;

The Bahmani Kingdom (1347-1527 A.D.)

The Bahmani Sultanate was a Persianised Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms.

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Bahmani Kingdom Political History

  • Ala-ud-Din Hasan Bahman Shah (also known as Zafar Khan) was the founder of the Bahmani Kingdom.
  • He was a noble in the employ of Muhammad bin Tughluq
  • in 1347 A.D. he established the independent Bahmani kingdom.
  • His kingdom included the whole of Deccan up to the river Krishna with its capital at Gulbarga.

Rulers of the Bahmani Kingdom

The details about the different rulers of the Bahmani kingdom are given below:

Muhammad Shah-I (1358-1375.A.D.)

  • He was the next ruler of the Bahamani Kingdom.
  • He was an able general and administrator.
  • He defeated Kapaya Nayaks of Warangal and the Vijayanagar ruler Bukka-I. 

Read about the Vijaynagar Empire in the linked article.

Muhammad Shah-ll (1378-1397.A.D.)

  • In 1378 A.D. Muhammad Shah-ll ascended the throne.
  • He was a peace lover and developed friendly relations with his neighbours.
  • He built many mosques, madrasas (a place of learning) and hospitals. 

Feroz Shah Bahmani (1397-1422 A.D.)

  • He was a great general
  • He defeated the Vijayanagar ruler Deva Raya I. 

Ahmad Shah (1422-1436 A.D.)

  • Ahmad Shah succeeded Feroz Shah Bahmani
  • He was an unkind and heartless ruler.
  • He conquered the kingdom of Warangal.
  • He changed his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.
  • He died in 1436A.D.

Muhammad Shah-lll (1463-1482 A.D.)

  • In 1463A.D. Muhammad Shah lll became the Sultan at the age of nine
  • Muhammad Gawan became the regent of the infant ruler.
  • Under Muhammad Gawan’s able leadership the Bahmani kingdom became very powerful.
  • Muhammad Gawan defeated the rulers of Konkan, Orissa, Sangameshwar, and Vijayanagar. 

The Five Kingdoms

  • Muhammad Shah-III died in 1482
  • His successors were weak and the Bahmani Kingdom disintegrated into five kingdoms namely:
    1. Bijapur
    2. Ahmednagar
    3. Bera
    4. Golconda
    5. Bidar


  • The Sultans followed a Feudal type of administration.
  • Tarafs – The kingdom was divided into many provinces called Tarafs
  • Tarafdar or Amir – Governor who controlled the Taraf.


  • Golgumbaz in Bijapur is called the whispering gallery because when one whispers, the lingering echo of the whisper is heard in the opposite corner.
  • This is so because when one whispers in one corner, a lingering echo is heard in the opposite corner.

Contribution to Education

  • The Bahmani Sultans gave great attention to education.
  • They encouraged Arabic and Persian learning.
  • Urdu also flourished during this period 

Art and Architecture

 Numerous mosques, madrassas and libraries were built.

  • The Juma Masjid at Gulbarga The Golconda Fort
  • The Golgumbaz at Bijapur
  • The Madrasas of Muhammad Gawan

Decline of Bahmani Kingdom

  • There was a constant war between the Bahmani and Vijayanagar rulers.
  • Inefficient and weak successors after Muhammad Shah III.
  • The rivalry between the Bahmani rulers and foreign nobles.

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