UPSC Exam Preparation: Topic of the Day – Lymphatic Filariasis
Lymphatic Filariasis also called elephantiasis is a vector borne disease, spread by the bite of mosquitoes and black flies. It is a parasitic disease caused by the filial worms (parasitic worms). In the human body, the disease parasite is acquired during childhood causing a gradual damage in lymphatic system. The larvae of the filial worms can live in the human body without showing any symptoms for up to 8 years.
When the mosquitoes bite human beings, the larva gets deposited into the skin. These worms mature into adults and breed, causing damage to the lymph system. The microfilariae (baby worms) then enter into the blood stream. When the mosquito bites an infected human being it carries the parasite which matures into larvae inside the mosquito.
Lymphatic Filariasis causes severe swelling in knees, legs, arms and genitals. This could lead to disability and disfigurement.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that about 1 billion people in 54 countries are at a risk of developing the disease. Bangladesh, Nigeria, Indonesia and India have 70% of disease burden. India alone accounts for 40% of the world’s disease burden with about 500 million people at a risk of contracting the disease. About 31 million microfilaraemics and 23 million symptomatic filariasis cases have been recorded.
Measures taken by the Indian government to eradicate the disease:
National Filaria control programme was launched in 1995 with the objective of training personnel to implement the program, undertake control measures in which the disease is endemic and delimit the problem.
Since 2004, the government has undertaken mass administration of drug (preventive medication) to the entire population in the areas where the disease is endemic whether or not ythey show symptoms of Filariasis. The Mass Drug Administration is being carried out as a part of “Filariasis Free India” programme. Under the programme, the population is being administered to the entire population excluding terminally ill individuals, pregnant women and children below the age of 2 years.
The data published by the Ministry of Health and Family welfare shows a drop in the Micro filaria rate in 2015 as compared to 2014.