03 Dec 2023: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

03 December 2023 CNA
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A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
1. India-Maldives Ties
C. GS 3 Related
1. Bhopal disaster & groundwater contamination
2. India not among 118 nations that pledged to push green energy
3. COP-28 & Health
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
F. Prelims Facts
1. Cyclone Michaung
2. Harissa
3. Theyyam
4. BASIC Grouping
5. Malaria in India
6. GIAN scheme
G. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

2. India not among 118 nations that pledged to push green energy

Syllabus: Conservation, Environmental pollution and degradation

Prelims: Global Renewables & Energy Efficiency Pledge

Mains: Significance of Global Renewables & Energy Efficiency Pledge

Context​: The COP-28 climate summit witnessed the commitment of 118 countries to triple installed renewable energy capacity by 2030, as outlined in the Global Renewables and Energy Efficiency Pledge. However, India’s notable absence from the list has raised concerns and sparked discussions. 

  • This move comes despite India’s existing commitment to install 500 GW of electricity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030, with around 170 GW already in place as of March 2023.


  • Non-participation of India and China: India, along with China, has chosen not to sign the pledge despite being major players in the global renewable energy landscape. China, possessing the world’s largest installed renewable energy capacity, also refrained from joining the commitment.
  • Existence of problematic language: Reports suggest that some language in the pledge text is deemed “problematic.” However, specific details regarding India’s concerns remain undisclosed.
  • Disagreement on large dams: The global community faces a disagreement on whether large dams, considered renewable energy sources by India, should be included in the commitment. This adds a layer of complexity to India’s decision, especially as tripling the current installed capacity would surpass India’s 500 GW commitment.


  • Legal sanctity of the pledge: The commitment made by the 118 nations lacks legal sanctity and has not been formally incorporated into the primary negotiating texts for COP-28. This raises questions about the enforceability and accountability of the pledge.
  • India’s existing commitments: India has already set ambitious targets as part of its nationally determined contributions (NDCs), aiming to install 500 GW of non-fossil fuel electricity by 2030. The absence of India’s endorsement may be influenced by the belief that the current targets are sufficiently ambitious.


  • Clarification of concerns: It is crucial for the international community to address the concerns and reservations expressed by India regarding the language and specific provisions of the pledge. Open dialogue can help resolve issues and encourage broader participation.
  • Incorporating large dams: Resolving the global disagreement on the classification of large dams as renewable sources is essential. Clearly defining and including these sources in the commitment could pave the way for India’s participation.

Nut Graf: The absence of India, a significant renewable energy player, from the list of countries committing to tripling installed renewable energy capacity raises questions about the inclusivity and global consensus on such pledges.

3. COP-28 & Health

Syllabus: Conservation, Environmental pollution and degradation

Prelims: COP-28

Mains: COP-28 & Health

Context​: The United Nations Conference of Parties (COP-28) summit, scheduled in the UAE, is set to mark a historic moment by placing a strong emphasis on the intersection of climate change and public health. 

  • The summit, after 28 years of climate negotiations, acknowledges the pressing need to address health concerns arising from unabated greenhouse gas emissions, extreme weather events, and environmental changes.


  • Climate-Health Nexus: Greenhouse gas emissions contribute to extreme weather events, air pollution, food insecurity, water scarcity, and population displacement, impacting public health.
  • Global Disparities: Regions like Africa, Asia, South and Central America, and small island states, which have contributed the least to climate change, bear the brunt of its adverse health effects.
  • Vector-Borne Diseases: Altered weather patterns affect the prevalence and distribution of diseases like dengue and malaria, disproportionately impacting marginalized communities.


  • Declaration on Climate and Health: Endorsed by 123 governments, the COP-28 Declaration highlights the crucial connection between climate change and health.
  • Inclusion of Health Day: The inaugural ‘Health Day’ at COP-28 signifies a shift in focus, prompting discussions on how public health can adapt to climate change and the financing required for this transformation.
  • Ministerial Engagement: Health inter-ministerial meetings involve ministers of health, environment, finance, and other relevant departments.


  • Mitigating Emissions: The COP-28 Declaration addresses the need for mitigating emissions, emphasizing the importance of transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable energy.
  • Adaptation in Health Sector: Discussions include strategies for the health sector to adapt to climate change, preventing and managing health crises triggered by environmental shifts.
  • Climate Financing: The financial aspect is crucial, with calls for contributions from private financial institutions to the Green Climate Fund. However, concerns exist regarding the source and nature of these funds.


  • Lack of Focus in G-20 Countries: Wealthy nations, major contributors to historical greenhouse gas emissions, are criticized for insufficient attention to health in their climate action plans.
  • Weather-Induced Health Crises: Predictions indicate significant financial tolls and increased poverty due to direct health impacts, necessitating robust climate-health funding mechanisms.
  • Financial Considerations: The Declaration endorses funding from various sources, including domestic budgets and private sector actors, raising concerns about the adequacy and nature of financial contributions.

Nut Graf: The COP-28 summit marks a critical juncture where the intersection of climate change and public health takes center stage. The significance of this focus lies not only in acknowledging the challenges but in crafting viable solutions that address the health impacts of climate change.


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