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27 Jan 2023: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 27 Jan 2023:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. The path to righting historical wrongs in Tamil Nadu
C. GS 3 Related
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Japan to flush Fukushima wastewater
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
GOVERNANCE
1. Level Playing Field for Sportswomen in India
F. Prelims Facts
1. Etikoppaka toy craft
2. Aditya-L1 mission
G. Tidbits
1. India and Egypt reiterate support for Non-Aligned Movement
2. States fall short of target to improve forest cover, quality
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

F. Prelims Facts

1. Etikoppaka toy craft

Syllabus: GS-1; Indian Art and Culture

Prelims: About Etikoppaka toy craft and Padma awards

Context

An agriculturist-turned-craftsman, Mr. C.V. Raju was honored with the Padma Shri award for his contribution to the Etikoppaka toy craft.

Read more about – Padma Awards

Etikoppaka toy craft

  • Etikoppaka toys or Etikoppaka Bommalu are wooden toys made in the Etikoppaka region of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Etikoppaka toy-making art has a history of over 400-years.
  • Etikoppaka toys are made out of wood and are coloured with natural dyes obtained from seeds, lacquer, bark, roots and leaves.
  • The wood derived from “Ankudi Karra” tree (Wrightia Tinctoria) is used in this toy making craft.
  • According to historians, the toymakers in the past received patronage from the affluent landlords in the region to make such wooden toys for their children.
  • The Etikoppaka toys are famous for their attractive colours, soft finish and their link with the Indian heritage.
  • The Etikoppaka wooden toys have been accorded the Geographical Indication (GI) tag in 2017.

2. Aditya-L1 mission

Syllabus: GS-3; Science and Technology – Awareness in the field of Space

Prelims:About Aditya-L1 mission

Context

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is looking to launch its Aditya-L1 mission by June or July 2023.

Aditya-L1 mission

  • Aditya-L1 is India’s first space mission to observe the Sun and the solar corona.
  • The Aditya-L1 mission will be launched by ISRO to the first Lagrangian point of the Sun-Earth system (L1 orbit), as the L1 orbit facilitates Aditya-L1 to look at the Sun continuously.
  • Aditya-L1 has seven payloads in total.
    • Out of the seven payloads Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC) has been designed and fabricated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics in Bengaluru.
    • The other six payloads are being developed by the ISRO and other scientific institutions.
  • According to scientists, no other solar coronagraph in space has the ability to image the solar corona as close to the solar disk as Visible Line Emission Coronagraph (VELC)
  • The Aditya-L1 mission will be launched using PSLV-XL (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle).

Know more about – Aditya L1 Mission

G. Tidbits

1. India and Egypt reiterate support for Non-Aligned Movement

  • A joint statement issued by India and Egypt after the bilateral engagements with President Abdel Fateh el-Sisi, who was invited as the chief guest at the Republic Day parade 2023 has reiterated both counties’ support for the Non-Aligned Movement.
  • Further, both the countries also reiterated their commitment to multilateralism, the principles of the United Nations Charter, international law, and respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states.
  • India and Egypt are celebrating the 75th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.
  • India and Egypt have also agreed to initiate new engagements to better military-to-military engagements and have planned more joint exercises between their armed forces.
  • The leaders of the two countries expressed concern over the spread of terrorism across the world and believe that it poses one of the most serious security threats to humanity

Read more about – India-Egypt relations

2. States fall short of target to improve forest cover, quality

Status Check 2

Image Source: the Hindu

  • As per the information accessed through the Right to Information (RTI) Act, India is lagging behind in the targets set to increase the number and quality of tree- and forest-cover plantations under the Green India Mission (GIM).
  • One of the key targets under GIM is 10 million hectares (mha) of forest and non-forest lands for increasing the forest and tree cover and improving the quality of existing forests.
    • However, between 2015-16 to 2021-22, the Centre has only approved a target of increasing tree and forest cover by 53,377 hectares and improving the quality of degraded forest by 1,66,656 ha.
    • According to the Union Environment Ministry, tree/forest cover had increased by 26,287 hectares and forest quality improved by only 1,02,096 hectares as of December 31, 2022.
    • Further, out of the total allocation of ₹681 crores by the Union government, only about ₹525 crores had been utilised.
  • According to the India State of Forest Report-2021, forest and tree cover in the country increased by 2,261 square kilometres since the last assessment in 2019.
    • However, critics believe that the increase in green cover was mainly through commercial plantations which can not compensate for natural forests and their biodiversity being monocultures susceptible to pest attacks.

3. India displays indigenous arms and women power

  • The push for atmanirbharta (self-sufficiency) in the country’s military strength and the role played by women in the armed forces were in the spotlight at the 2023 Republic Day celebrations held at the Kartavya Path, formerly known as Rajpath.
  • As the Indian National Flag was unfurled, the 21-gun salute was presented for the first time by Indian-made 105-mm field guns which replaced the seven vintage Quick Fire 25-pounder guns used since Independence.
  • The Indian Army further showcased Made-in-India defence equipment such as Arjun (main battle tank), the NAG missile system, the K-9 Vajra-T gun system, the Akash air defence system, and the BrahMos missile.
  • Further, the marching contingents of the Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy were led by women officers for the first time showcasing women empowerment.
    • The theme of “nari shakti” (women power) was highlighted even in the parade of cultural tableaux.
      • Example: Tripura’s tableau showed the active role of its women in creating sustainable livelihoods through tourism and organic farming.
      • Kerala tableau presented folk traditions of women’s empowerment.

Also read – Women in the Indian Armed Forces

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of these statements are not true? (Level – Moderate)
  1. The Green Railway Station Certificate is given by the Ministry of Environment and Forest.
  2. Visakhapatnam Railway station is the first station in India to receive this certification.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct, The Green Railway Station Certificate is given by the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) for adopting green concepts thereby reducing the adverse environmental impact. 
    • The Environment Directorate of Indian Railways, along with the support of the IGBC, has developed the Green Railway Station rating system.
  • Statement 2 is not correct, Visakhapatnam Railway station is one of the few railway stations to get this prestigious certificate.
    • In 2022, Bhagalpur railway station (BGP) of Malda division, Eastern Railway (ER) received Green Railway Station Certification
    • In 2021, Central Railways’s Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus Railway Station (CSMT) was awarded IGBC Green Railway Station Certification.
Q2. Consider the following statements: (Level – Moderate)
  1. India launched its first solar mission in December 2022.
  2. It will be placed on Lagrange point 1.
  3. Aditya 1 will study the solar atmosphere and solar wind patterns among other things.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct, The ISRO is planning to launch the Aditya-L1 mission which is the first Indian space mission to observe the Sun and the solar corona, by June or July 2023.
  • Statement 2 is correct, The Aditya-L1 mission will be launched by ISRO to the L1 orbit (which is the first Lagrangian point of the Sun-Earth system).
    • L1 orbit allows Aditya-L1 to look at the Sun continuously.
  • Statement 3 is correct, Aditya 1 will study the solar atmosphere and solar wind patterns among other things.
Q3. Which of the following is/are not located in or around Egypt?(Level – Difficult)
  1. Lake Victoria
  2. Mediterranean Sea
  3. Red Sea
  4. Gulf of Aden

Options:

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 1 and 4
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

world atlas

Image source: World Atlas

Q4. Which of the following are correctly matched? (Level – Easy)
  1. Recession: Decline in growth for 2 consecutive quarters
  2. Stagflation: Stagnant Inflation
  3. Deflation: Negative inflation

Options:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Pari 1 is correct, A recession is a significant and prolonged downturn in economic activity and a common rule of thumb is that two consecutive quarters of negative GDP growth mean recession.
  • Pari 2 is not correct, Stagflation is an economic condition when stagnant economic growth, high unemployment, and high inflation combine together
  • Pari 3 is correct, Deflation is referred to as the decrease in the price of goods and services. In such a situation the purchasing power of the population increases.
    • It is also referred to as Negative inflation.
Q5. Consider the following statements: (Level – Easy) PYQ 2020
  1. The Constitution of India defines its basic structure in terms of federalism, secularism, fundamental rights and democracy.
  2. The Constitution of India provides for ‘Judicial review’ to safeguard the citizens’ liberties and to preserve the ideals on which the Constitution is based.

Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct, The Supreme Court in its landmark Kesavananda Bharati case 1973 judgement laid down the doctrine of the “basic structure” of the Constitution.
    • Thus, the Constitution of India does not define the term “basic structure”.
  • Statement 2 is not  correct, There is no direct provision in the Indian constitution that provides for “Judicial review” to safeguard the citizens’ liberties and to preserve the ideals on which the Constitution is based.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. What are the impediments being faced in increasing the participation of women in Indian armed forces? (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-2; Social Justice)
  2. India can overlook Non-Aligned Movement only at its own peril. Comment.  (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-2; International Relations)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 27 Jan 2023:- Download PDF Here

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