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31 Jan 2023: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 31 Jan 2023:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. General Assembly divided over UN reforms
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INDIAN ECONOMY
1. Tasks for India’s millet revolution
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. A problem of science at the Padma awards
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. In 2022, trial courts imposed most death sentences in 20 years
F. Prelims Facts
G. Tidbits
1. Aero India: BEL to showcase state-of-the-art products
2. Plan in place to eradicate invasive plant species from Kerala’s wildlife habitat
3. Centre to roll out process to set up 16th Finance Commission soon
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

2. Plan in place to eradicate invasive plant species from Kerala’s wildlife habitat

  • The Nodal Centre for Biological Invasions (NCBI) at the Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) has formulated a plan to eradicate an invasive plant species named “Senna spectabilis” that poses a significant threat to the wildlife habitat.
  • Based on an experimental study conducted at the Periyar Tiger Reserve, the NCBI has recommended a plan that envisages landscape-level management of the tree. 
  • The two main factors considered while developing the management protocol were: 
    • Fast nature of the spread of the invasive plant in natural forests
    • Restoration of natural forests based on landscape
  • The management plan formulated by the NCBI says that there should not be an attempt to kill the trees before a detailed reforestation programme and the invasive species must only be removed using a threefold approach for large trees, large saplings, and small saplings namely:
    • The large trees must be debarked from breast height downwards (1.3 m above ground level), including the collar part of the tree.
    • As the trees start to dry up, their soil seed bank will become active and a large number of plantlets will sprout. The larger saplings can be uprooted using specially designed weed pullers.
    • The third is the removal of small plantlets mechanically.

For more information on invasive species and Senna spectabilis, refer to the following article:

UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis dated 02 Nov 2022

3. Centre to roll out process to set up 16th Finance Commission soon

  • The Union Government is expected to initiate the process of establishing the 16th Finance Commission.
  • The Finance Commission is a constitutional body that is tasked with recommending the revenue-sharing model between the Union and the States and their distribution among the States.
  • The 15th Finance Commission was established in November 2017 with a mandate to make recommendations for the five-year period from 2020-21 and its mandate was extended by a year till 2025-26, breaking the cycle.
    • The last time a Finance Commission was granted a six-year time frame was for the 9th Finance Commission which was set up in 1987.
  • The Union Finance Ministry will usually notify the terms of reference for the Finance Commission and the Commission is usually given close to two years to deliberate on its terms of reference, consult States and frame its recommendations.
  • Experts believe that a key new challenge for the 16th Finance Commission would be the co-existence of the GST Council which is another permanent constitutional body.
    • Experts feel that GST Council’s decisions on tax rate changes could alter the revenue calculations made by the Finance  Commission for sharing fiscal resources.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which statements is/are true regarding the National Commission for Women? 
(Level – Easy)
  1. It is a constitutional body established in 1992.
  2. It is an advisory body to the Government of India.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct, The National Commission for Women (NCW) was set up as a statutory body in 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990.
  • Statement 2 is correct, The NCW is an advisory body to the government of India and it advises the government on all policy matters affecting women.
Q2. Identify the correct statements: (Level – Moderate)
  1. The Indus Water Treaty was signed in 1960.
  2. India gets only 20% of the total water from the Indus system under the treaty.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct, The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was signed in 1960 by the then-Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the then-Pakistani President Ayub Khan.
    • The treaty was brokered by the World Bank.
  • Statement 2 is correct, As per the treaty, India got control over the three eastern rivers namely – Ravi, Beas and Sutlej and Pakistan got control over the three western rivers namely – Indus, Chenab and Jhelum.
    • According to this treaty, India gets only 20% of the water from the Indus River System whereas Pakistan gets the rest 80%.
Q3. Which of the following statements is/are not true? (Level – Moderate)
  1. The one-child policy of China was an anti-natal policy that started just after its independence.
  2. The one-child policy came to an end in 2015-16.
  3. China has seen a reduction in its population for 2 consecutive decades.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct, The one-child policy was a program in China that limited most Chinese families to one child each and was implemented nationwide by the Chinese government in 1980.
    • The creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was declared in 1949.
  • Statement 2 is correct, The one-child policy came to an end in 2015-16.
  • Statement 3 is not correct, China’s population shrank in 2022 for the first time in over six decades.
Q4. Which statements are correct regarding invasive alien species? (Level – Easy)
  1. They refer to the endemic species that undergo uncontrolled growth, becoming the dominant species of the ecosystem.
  2. They can endanger the biodiversity of the area they spread in.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct, Invasive alien species are those plants, animals, pathogens and other organisms that are non-native to an ecosystem and become the dominant species of that ecosystem due to uncontrolled growth,
  • Statement 2 is correct, Invasive alien species can have adverse impacts on the native biodiversity, causing decline or even extinction of native species, and negatively affecting ecosystems.
Q5. With reference to ‘Water Credit’, consider the following statements: 
(Level – Difficult) (PYQ 2021)
  1. It puts microfinance tools to work in the water and sanitation sector.
  2. It is a global initiative launched under the aegis of the World Health Organization and the World Bank.
  3. It aims to enable poor people to meet their water needs without depending on subsidies.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct, Water Credit is a powerful solution and the first to put microfinance tools to work in the water and sanitation sector.
  • Statement 2 is not correct, It is a global initiative launched by Water.org
    • Water.org is a global non-profit organization working to bring water and sanitation to the world.
  • Statement 3 is correct, Water Credit helps bring small loans to those who need access to affordable financing and expert resources to make household water and toilet solutions a reality.

CNA 31 Jan 2023:- Download PDF Here

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