20 Jul 2020: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

20 July 2020 CNA:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. China has crossed its 1960 claims along the LAC
C. GS 3 Related
ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
1. Sacred groves
DEFENCE
1. Domestic firms worried over small arms imports
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
1. Foreign experts seek to leave Baghjan site
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Make the right call on ‘Malabar’ going Quad
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Why a separate anti-torture law?
F. Prelims Facts
1. Nehru Memorial Museum & Library (NMML)
2. Kayapo Tribe
G. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

Site of June 15 clash

China’s Shifting Lines

  • China’s current moves to enforce its Line of Actual Control (LAC) claims, which sparked the recent border incidents, mark a shift from what Beijing told India in 1960 about where its boundaries were, both in the Galwan Valley and Pangong Lake.

Category: DEFENCE

1. Domestic firms worried over small arms imports

Background

  • Indian Army has decided to buy 72,000 Sig Sauer assault rifles for its troops from the United States.
  • The new assault rifles will gradually replace the flaw-ridden 5.56 mm INSAS (Indian Small Arms System) rifles.
  • The rifles are currently being used by US forces as well as several other European countries.

Context

  • Domestic small arms manufacturers have expressed concern over continuing imports and they have written a letter to the Defence Minister asking for a level playing field to showcase their products.

Details

  • Several Indian companies have invested in the small arms segment, given the large requirement and efforts by the government to open up ammunition to the private sector and have started production as well.

Concerns

  • Companies would have invested crores of rupees with the hope of business and contract from the Government, but today they are staring at an uncertain future.
  • If the domestic industries are not given a chance, it will only undermine the Make in India initiative and companies may shut their operations.

Category: DISASTER MANAGEMENT

1. Foreign experts seek to leave Baghjan site

Kindly refer to:

CNA dated June 18, 2020

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. Why a separate anti-torture law?

Context:

  • The alleged torture of a father-son duo in Sattankulam town in Tamil Nadu has given rise to the demand for a separate law against torture.

Background:

  • In 2017, the Central Government admitted in the Supreme Court that it was seriously considering the 273rd Report of the Law Commission that recommended ratification of the UN Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment (CAT).
  • CAT was signed by India but is yet to be ratified.

Details:

Existing laws:

  • Torture is not defined in the Indian Penal Code, but the definitions of ‘hurt’ and ‘grievous hurt’ are clearly laid down. Voluntarily causing hurt and grievous hurt to extort confession are dealt with in the Indian Penal Code.
  • Under the Code of Criminal Procedure, a judicial magistrate inquires into every custodial death.
  • The National Human Rights Commission has laid down specific guidelines for conducting autopsy under the eyes of the camera.

Judicial contributions:

  • Though the definition of ‘hurt’ does not include mental torture, Indian courts through their judgments have included psychic torture, environmental coercion, tiring interrogative prolixity, and overbearing and intimidatory methods, among others, in the ambit of torture.
  • The Supreme Court judgment in DK Basu v. State of West Bengal was a turning point in the evolving jurisprudence on custodial torture.
  • The Court’s decision in Nilabati Behera v. State of Orissa compels the state to pay compensation in case of custodial torture.

For more information, refer to:

CNA dated July 2, 2020

Concerns:

  • The article argues that there being no deficiency in the existing law, the demand for a new law may be counter-productive.

Prevention of Torture Bill:

  • A fresh draft of the Prevention of Torture Bill was released in 2017.
  • The article argues that this bill, apart from being vague, was also very harsh for the police to discharge its responsibilities without fear of prosecution and persecution.
    • By proposing for the death penalty for custodial death accused, the proposed quantum of punishment seems too harsh.
      • The 262nd Law Commission Report recommended that the death penalty be abolished except in cases of ‘terrorism-related offences’.
    • In the Bill, the proposed registration of every complaint of torture as an FIR and blanket denial of anticipatory bail to an accused public servant was not reasonable.
  • As opposed to the intention of having a reformative law, the proposed Bill was not a reformative one. It was vague, harsh and retributive in nature.

Way forward:

  • Except for minor discrepancies, the prevalent law in India is adequate and well in tune with the provisions of CAT and there is a need to further improve on its implementation. There is a need to improve the implementation of the existing laws instead of bringing in a new law.
    • The investigations and the prosecution process are prone to concerns and these aspects need to be reformed.
  • The police need to be trained better. The temptation to use third-degree methods must be replaced with scientific skills.
  • The need of the hour is to strike at the root cause of the problem and implement recommendations of various commissions to bring in necessary reforms.

For information on the National Police Commission (NPC) Recommendations, refer to:

CNA dated July 4, 2020

For more related information, refer to:

CNA dated Feb 7, 2020

F. Prelims Facts

1. Nehru Memorial Museum & Library (NMML)

  • It was established in memory of Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • It is an autonomous institution under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
  • It is located in the majestic Teen Murti House, the official residence of the first Prime Minister of India.
  • It has four major constituents namely:
    • A Memorial Museum,
    • A Library on Modern India,
    • A Centre for Contemporary Studies and
    • Nehru Planetarium.

2. Kayapo Tribe

  • They live alongside the Xingu River in the eastern part of the Amazon rainforest, in several scattered villages ranging in population from one hundred to one thousand in Brazil.
  • The Kayapo use intricate black body paint covering their entire bodies. They believe that their ancestors learned their social skills from insects, so they paint their bodies to mimic them and to better communicate with the Spirit that exists everywhere.
  • Older generations of Kayapo men wear disks in their lower lips.

G. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. India has ratified which of the following conventions?
  1. Convention against Torture
  2. Convention on Cluster Munitions
  3. Chemical Weapons Convention

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

  • In 2017, the Central Government admitted in the Supreme Court that it was seriously considering the 273rd Report of the Law Commission that recommended ratification of the U.N. Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment (CAT). CAT was signed by India but is yet to be ratified.
  • India became one of the original signatories of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1993 and ratified it on 02 September 1996.
Q2. With reference to the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, which of the following 
statement/s is/are correct?
  1. The provisions of this Act apply to citizens of India outside India.
  2. Under the UAPA, the investigating agency can file a charge sheet in a maximum of 90 days after the arrests.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Under the UAPA, the investigating agency can file a charge sheet in maximum 180 days after the arrests:

More on UAPA.

Q3. Consider the following pairs: 
  1. Jim Corbett National Park: Uttarakhand
  2. Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary: Sikkim
  3. Silent Valley National Park: Kerala

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary is a Wildlife Sanctuary in Tripura.

Q4. Congress had decided to demand “Purna Swaraj” (complete independence) at its 
  1. Lahore Session
  2. Bombay session
  3. Benaras Session
  4. Madras Session
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

The Indian National Congress, on 19 December 1929, passed the historic ‘Purna Swaraj’ – (total independence) resolution – at its Lahore session.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Discuss the existing laws and mechanisms dealing with the issue of custodial deaths in India. Analyze the concerns associated with the draft Prevention of Torture Bill. (10 marks, 150 words) ( GS paper 2/Polity and Governance)
  2. The benefits or gains for India in the strategic realm would be higher as compared to the cost of participating in the quadrilateral engagement involving the U.S., Japan and Australia. Examine. (15 marks, 250 words) (GS paper 2/International Relations)

 

20 July 2020 CNA:- Download PDF Here

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