30 Jul 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Quote for the day Set 5 11

CNA 30 July 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY
1. Kerala tops in holding Assembly sittings in 2021
2. Appointment of Chief Justice of India and High court Judges
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
E. Editorials
GOVERNANCE
1. We need to protect whistle blowers
2. Token prohibition takes a toll in Gujarat
F. Prelims Facts
1. Core sector output expands by 12.7%
2. India’s First Bullion Exchange
G. Tidbits
1. Boon after ban of Single-use plastic
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

2. Appointment of Chief Justice of India and High court Judges

Syllabus: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

Mains: Appointment of Supreme Court and High Court Judges

Context: Union Law Minister gave details regarding the appointments of Judges in a written reply to the Lok Sabha. However, still there is no word in the public domain about the beginning of the process to appoint the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

Details:

  • Between December 2021 to July 26, 2022, the Supreme Court Collegium has recommended 140 names (127 fresh and 13 reiterated). 
  • Out of 127 fresh recommendations, 61 appointments have been made including the extension of the term of one additional judge and 66 cases which have been recommended by the Supreme Court Collegium recently are at various stages of processing with the government.
  • As per ‘Memorandum of Procedure of Appointment of Supreme Court Judges’, the process of appointing the CJI begins with the Union Law Minister seeking the recommendation of the outgoing Chief Justice about his/her successor. 
  • The Memorandum does not elaborate on or specify a timeline.
  • Appointment to the office of the Chief Justice of India should be of the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court considered fit to hold the office.
  • The appointment process requires consultation and approval from various constitutional authorities both at the central and state level.

Read more on the Collegium System here.

Vacancies in Indian Judiciary:

  • The Indian judiciary faces high vacancies across all levels.  
  • These rising vacancies are one of the reasons for the rising number of pending cases and delays. 
    • More than 4 crore cases are pending across all courts in India in 2021.  
  • Vacancies increased from 18% to 21% across all levels of courts between 2010 and 2020. 
    • Around 406 out of sanctioned 1098 posts are vacant in High Courts.
Vacancy of judges in HC

Image Source: prsindia.org

Reasons for Increasing Vacancies: 

  • Retirement
  • Resignation 
  • Elevation of judges
  • Increase in the sanctioned strength of judges over the years.
  • The concerned High Court has to initiate the appointment procedure at least 6 months before a vacancy occurs. However, this timeline is rarely followed by the High Courts.  
  • No timeline is prescribed for executive approval after receiving recommendations from the Supreme Court collegium. 
  • The average time taken to appoint High Court judges after receiving the recommendations stood at 5-7 months in 2018 and 2019.

Way Forward:

  •  In 2020, the judge-to-population ratio was 21 judges per million population. As per the Law Commission of India’s recommendations, the ratio should be raised to 50 judges per million people. This was reiterated by the Standing Committee on Home Affairs and Supreme Court.

Nut Graf: Timely appointment of Judges in every kind of court (The Supreme Court, High Courts and Subordinate Courts) will help in quicker case disposal reducing the number of pending cases.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Core sector output expands by 12.7%

Syllabus: Gs3- Economy-Infrastructure

Prelims: Core sector industries.

Context: The Office of Economic Adviser, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade recently released the Index of Eight Core Industries for the Month of June 2022.

Details:

  • June saw 12.7% growth in India’s eight core sectors from 18.1% in May.
  • Except for crude oil, all other sectors registered an uptick in production.  
  • Cement, coal, refinery products and electricity saw 15% or more growth, compared with the June 2021 output levels.
  • Fertilizers (8.2%), Natural gas (1.2%) and steel (3.3%)  grew at a milder pace. 
  • Crude oil output dropped 1.7% compared to June 2021 level.
  • June 2022 marks the second successive month of double-digit growth in core sectors, the overall core output shrank 4.08% compared with the previous month.
  • Compared to pre-COVID levels, the core sectors reported an 8% growth in June.
y o y sector

Image Source: The Hindu

Read more on Eight Core Industries.

2. India’s First Bullion Exchange

Syllabus: GS3- Economy-Industrial Policies

Prelims: Bullion Exchanges and GIFT City

Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the India International Bullion Exchange (IIBX) at Gandhinagar’s GIFT city.

What is IIBX?

  • It is India’s first international bullion exchange. It offers a diversified portfolio of products and technology services at a cost far more competitive than the Indian exchanges as well as other global exchanges in Singapore, Dubai, Hongkong, New York and London.
  • As the second biggest consumer of gold globally, setting up of the IIBX is seen as India’s effort to bring transparency to the market for the precious metal. 
    • International Financial Services Centers Authority (IFSCA) is the regulator of IIBX. 
    • This could lead to standard gold pricing in India and make it easier for small bullion dealers and jewellers to trade in the precious metal.
    • It will give stimulus to the financialization of gold across the country.
    • It will also empower India to affect international bullion prices as a principal consumer.
    • IIBX will serve the purpose of a global value chain with integrity and quality.
  • Gold is tightly regulated in India and currently only nominated agencies and banks approved by the Reserve Bank of India can import gold and sell it to dealers and jewellers across the country.

G. Tidbits

1. Boon after ban of Single-use plastic

  • The countrywide ban on single-use plastic since July 1, 2022, has become an advantage for locals, especially women in villages of Himachal Pradesh, who make traditional leaf plates and bowls.
  • The demand for these products which are eco-friendly is currently on the rise and fetching them great profits.
  • The Himachal Pradesh Forest Department is playing a crucial role in aiding the locals in production.
    • In order to meet the increasing demand for leaf plates, the forest department in collaboration with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is motivating community groups to prepare products using machines instead of doing it manually.
    • The department is also planting specific species such as ‘Bauhinia vahlii’ in the forest adjoining the villages of trained community groups to ensure an adequate supply of quality leaves.
      • Bauhinia vahlii is a climbing shrub, able to grow onto the top of trees in the forest.  
  • Under the collaboration, each community group of average of 15 people is given a capital cost of ₹1,29,000 for setting up the plate-making machine that makes 1,000 plates daily. 
  • So far, around 484 such self-help groups are developed in Himachal.

.Biodegradable leaf plates possess a potential in the national and international market, provided quality and standards are met. 

  • This project can be seen as a revival of the traditional leaf plate and bowl business in the area which was fading away due to the invasion of factory-made plastic plates and bowls with cheap price and long shelf-life. 
  • This is also expected to improve the environment in Himachal Pradesh better than any other States, keeping in view the many traditional alternatives to replace plastics by locals and SHGs.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements with regards to the Indian Economy’s
 core sector: (Level – Easy)
  1. The eight core sectors are coal, crude oil, natural gas, refinery products, fertilizer, steel, cement and electricity.
  2. The eight core sector industries in decreasing order of their weightage: Refinery Products> Electricity> Steel> Coal> Crude Oil> Natural Gas> Cement> Fertilizers.
  3. At present, the base year of IIP is 2014-15.

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 & 2 only
  2. 2 & 3 only
  3. 1 & 3 only
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Statements 1 and 2 are correct, Index of Eight Core Industries (ICI) refers to a production volume index that measures the collective and individual production performances of eight selected core industries. 
    • These industries are Natural Gas, Coal, Refinery Products, Crude Oil, Cement, Electricity, Steel, and Fertilizers.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect, the base year of IIP is 2011-12.
Q2. Consider the following statements with regards to India’s first bullion
exchange — the India International Bullion Exchange (IIBX): (Level – Difficult)
  1. To become qualified jewellers in order to import gold through the IIBX, they would require a minimum net worth of Rs 25 crore and 90 per cent of the average annual turnover in the last three financial years through deals in goods categorized as precious metals.
  2. Apart from qualified jewellers, non-resident Indians and institutions will also be able to participate in the exchange after registering with the IFSCA (International Financial Services Centers Authority).
  3. For becoming a trading member at IIBX, a qualified jeweller may establish a branch or a subsidiary in IFSC (International Financial Services Centre) and apply to the IFSCA.

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 & 2 only
  2. 2 & 3 only
  3. 1 & 3 only
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Statements 1 and 2 are correct, Gold is tightly regulated in India and currently only nominated agencies and banks approved by the Reserve Bank of India can import gold and sell it to dealers and jewellers across the country. 
    • In order to become qualified jewellers to import gold through the IIBX, entities require a minimum net worth of Rs 25 crore and 90 per cent of the average annual turnover in the last 3 financial years through deals in goods categorized as precious metals.
    • Non-resident Indians and Institutes can also participate in the exchange after registering with the IFSCA (International Financial Services Centers Authority).
  • Statement 3 is correct, Jewelers can transact in IIBX only as a trading member or as clients of a trading member by establishing a branch in IFSC.
Q3. Consider the following statements with regards to Commonwealth Games:
 (Level – Medium)
  1. Women’s International Cricket has been made a part of the 2022 Commonwealth games.
  2. The motto for the 2022 Commonwealth games is “Games for Everyone”.
  3. India’s best-ever performance at the Commonwealth games came in the 2010 edition hosted by India.

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 & 2 only
  2. 2 & 3 only
  3. 1 & 3 only
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation: 

  • Statement 2 is correct, 21st edition of the Commonwealth Games commenced in the city of Birmingham, United Kingdom with the theme, “Games for Everyone”.
  • Statement 1 is correct, Women’s cricket tournament is included in the Games for the first time in this edition. The matches are being played as T20 Internationals.
  • Statement 3 is correct, Overall at Commonwealth Games, India has won 503 medals – 181 golds, 173 silvers and 149 bronzes. The most successful individual Games were the 2010 edition, in New Delhi with 101 medals. The second-best was the 2002 Games in Manchester with 69 medals.
Q4. Consider the following statements with regards to National Tiger Conservation
 Authority: (Level – Easy)
  1. National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change.
  2. It was established in 2005 following the recommendations of the Tiger Task Force.
  3. The National Tiger Conservation Authority is set up under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister.

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 & 2 only
  2. 2 & 3 only
  3. 1 & 3 only
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

Read about National Tiger Conservation Authority here.

Q5. Which of the following is not included in the assets of a commercial bank 
in India? (Level – Easy)
  1. Advances
  2. Deposits
  3. Investments
  4. Money at call and short notice
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

Assets and Liabilities are defined as follows:

  • The assets of the commercial bank are Investments,  Cash in hand, Advances, Bills discounted and purchased, Loans
  • While the liabilities are Capital and Reserves, Deposits, Borrowings, and other liabilities
  • Therefore, option b is correct.

 

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 30 July 2022:- Download PDF Here

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