22 Mar 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 22nd March 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. SC walks a tightrope over vacancies
2. Corrective voice from top court against stereotyping women
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Myanmar border shut amid strains over refugee crisis
C. GS 3 Related
SECURITY
1. CPWD to lay three roads near China border in Ladakh
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
ECONOMY
1. Doubling down on a resilient India
2. Junk inefficiency
SOCIAL ISSUES
1. How to treat unpaid work
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Iran deal could be rescued by the IAEA
F. Prelims Facts
1. Centre warns of COVID-19 spike at Kumbh
2. Ahom warrior a symbol of atmanirbhar military: PM
3. International Day of Forests
G. Tidbits
1. Philippines accuses China of ‘incursion’ in disputed sea
2. Indian-Israeli collaboration testing oral COVID vaccine
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

2. Corrective voice from top court against stereotyping women

Context:

Recently, the Supreme Court in a judgement forbade judges from making gender-stereotypical comments.

Details:

  • A judgment by the Supreme Court forbidding judges from making gender-stereotypical comments came as a corrective voice from within the highest level of judiciary in India.
  • The judgment stopped courts from trying to mandate marriage or compromise between a sex offender and his victim.
  • It is one among a series of interventions with which the top court has clamped down on abuse and sex stereotyping of women.

Note:

  • Some notable judgments which have lashed out at sex stereotyping include:
    • The framing of the Vishaka Guidelines on sexual harassment of women at workplaces.
    • Justice D.Y. Chandrachud’s historic judgment giving women Armed Forces officers equal access to Permanent Commission while debunking the establishment’s claim that women were physiologically weaker than men.
    • In the Anuj Garg case, the Supreme Court had rebuked the notion of romantic paternalism, which, in practical effect, put women, not on a pedestal, but in a cage.

Category: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. Myanmar border shut amid strains over refugee crisis

Context:

India has sealed all entry points along the border with Myanmar and is closely monitoring them to prevent any Myanmar national from entering the country.

Details:

  • People belonging to Myanmar’s Chin community were seeking to migrate to Mizoram to escape a military crackdown.
  • There is considerable support and sympathy among the people of Mizoram over the situation in Myanmar as many have relations across the border.
  • The tussle between the Centre and Mizoram on the issue has created a tough time for New Delhi and security agencies in handling the situation on the ground.
  • Mizoram CM had written to the centre asserting that India cannot turn a blind eye to the humanitarian crisis unfolding in our own backyard (Myanmar).
  • “Myanmar area bordering Mizoram is inhibited by Chin communities, who are ethnically our brethren with whom we have been having close contacts throughout all these years even before India became independent”, he stated in the letter.

Note:

  • India and Myanmar have an arrangement called the Free Movement Regime (FMR).
  • In March 2020, FMR was suspended due to COVID-19 and no one has been allowed since.
  • The fallout of this was that there has been an increase in smuggling across the border as the livelihood of people has been disrupted due to the pandemic.
  • The Myanmar border is unfenced and completely blocking incursions is not possible given the tough terrain.

[su_box title=”Free Movement Regime (FMR)” box_color=”#7960a0″ title_color=”#ffffff”]

  • India has a 1,643-km border with Myanmar.
    • Mizoram shares a 510-km-long border with Myanmar.
  • It has a visa-free movement regime for people living within 16 km on either side of the border known as FMR.
  • “Free movement regime” is a bilateral agreement with Myanmar that allows free movement of Indian and Myanmar citizens within 16 km of the border.
  • This regime has been in place keeping in view the traditional social relations among the border people. It helps genuine people living in close proximity to the border.[/su_box]

2. Ahom warrior a symbol of atmanirbhar military: PM

What’s in News?

The Prime Minister of India called 17th-century Ahom General Lachit Borphukan a symbol of India’s “atmanirbhar” military might.

Lachit Borphukan:

  • Lachit Borphukan was a commander in the Ahom dynasty, located in present-day Assam.
  • He showed exemplary leadership in the Battle of Saraighat (1671).
  • The Battle of Saraighat was a naval battle fought between the Mughal Empire and the Ahom Kingdom.
  • 24th November is observed as Lachit Diwas in Assam in honour of Lachit Borphukan to commemorate his heroism and the victory of the Assamese army at the Battle of Saraighat.

3. International Day of Forests

  • The United Nations observes March 21 as the International Day of Forests, commemorating the green cover around the world and reiterating its importance. The theme of the International Day of Forests for 2021 is “Forest restoration: a path to recovery and well-being”.
  • The Day celebrates and raises awareness of the importance of all types of forests. On this day, countries are encouraged to undertake local, national and international efforts to organize activities involving forests and trees, such as tree-planting campaigns.
  • The Day is celebrated by the United Nations Forum on Forests and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with governments, the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and other relevant organisations in the field.
  • This year’s theme aims to emphasise how restoration and sustainable management of forests can help address climate change and the biodiversity crisis.

G. Tidbits

1. Philippines accuses China of ‘incursion’ in disputed sea

What’s in News?

The Philippines has accused China of incursion after more than 200 militia boats were spotted near a disputed reef in the South China Sea.

  • The Philippine coast guard detected the boats in line formation at the boomerang-shaped Whitsun Reef, around 320 km (175 nautical miles) west of Palawan Island.
  • Philippines Defence Secretary asserted that these territories were well within Philippine Exclusive Economic Zone and called on the Chinese to stop the incursion and immediately recall the boats violating maritime rights and encroaching into their sovereign territory.

Read more on South China Sea dispute.

  • Also, the U.S. had previously accused China of using maritime militia to intimidate, coerce and threaten other nations over its claims to almost the entire South China Sea.

2. Indian-Israeli collaboration testing oral COVID vaccine

What’s in News?

An Indian-Israeli collaboration has reportedly developed an oral vaccine for COVID-19.

  • The vaccine can be swallowed like a pill instead of being injected, as is the norm.
  • The nascent COVID-19 vaccine candidate is a protein-based VLP (Virus Like Particle) vaccine candidate that generates triple protection against the SARS CoV-2 virus, i.e., it is able to target the spike, membrane, and envelope proteins of the coronavirus.
  • A preliminary test in animals showed that the vaccine produced the expected antibodies that confer protection.
  • However, the findings have not been reported in a scientific publication yet and cannot be independently verified.
  • The product is also far from being tested in human trials.
  • Premas Biotech, a Gurugram-based biotechnology firm (India), and Oramed Pharmaceuticals, a Jerusalem headquartered company (Israel), have a long-standing collaboration on developing new drug delivery techniques.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements:
  1. United Nations Refugee Convention sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum.
  2. The United Nations Refugee Convention of 1951 includes refugees from Europe only.
  3. India is not a signatory of both the United Nations Refugee Convention of 1951 and its 1967 Protocol.

Which of the given statement/s is/are INCORRECT?

  1. 2 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. None of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • United Nations Refugee Convention is a United Nations multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum.
  • While the United Nations Refugee Convention of 1951 includes refugees from Europe only, the 1967 Protocol included refugees from all countries.
  • India is not a signatory of both the United Nations Refugee Convention of 1951 and its 1967 Protocol.
Q2. Lachit Borphukan is associated with which of the following?
  1. Battle of Itakhuli
  2. Battle of Saraighat
  3. Battle of Khongjom
  4. Gorkha War
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Lachit Borphukan was a commander in the Ahom dynasty, located in present-day Assam.
  • He showed exemplary leadership in the Battle of Saraighat (1671).
  • The Battle of Saraighat was a naval battle fought between the Mughal Empire and the Ahom Kingdom.
Q3. Muria tribe belongs to which state?
  1. Mizoram
  2. Assam
  3. Chhattisgarh
  4. West Bengal
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

The Muria are scheduled tribes of the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh.

Q4. Consider the following statements with respect to Whitsun Reef:
  1. It is a reef in the Spratly Islands of the South China Sea.
  2. It is a V-shaped reef.
  3. It is a part of the ongoing maritime dispute between China and the Philippines.

Which of the given statement/s is/are correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 only
  4. 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Whitsun Reef is a reef in the Spratly Islands of the South China Sea. It is a V-shaped reef.
  • It is a part of the ongoing maritime dispute between China and the Philippines.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Companies with global ambitions invest in the Indian market in spite of hurdles as the rewards for investment are substantial and well worth pursuing. Substantiate. (10 marks, 150 words) [GS 3, Economy]
  2. The unpaid work of women has to be recognized and should be taken into account in the formulation of socio-economic policies. Discuss. (10 marks, 150 words) [GS1, Social Issues]

Read previous CNA here.

CNA 22nd March 2021:- Download PDF Here

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