India is bestowed with a vast diversity in its socio-economic-geographic and political facets. This feature makes India special among world nations. Polity which deals with governance and administrative mechanisms is a significant topic for UPSC IAS Examination. Here we are giving the differences between Indian Government and U.S. Government which is essential for UPSC IAS Mains exam.
- Indian democracy is dominated by a number of political parties whereas American democracy is dominated by just two parties – The Republican Party and The Democratic Party.
Structure of government
- The structure of Indian Government is primarily federal but with strong unitary bias.
- In U.S, the Government is chiefly federal in nature since the States are authorized with their own Constitutions.
Form of government
- India has a Parliamentary form of government whereas the US follows a Presidential form of Government.
Head and elections
- The head of a Parliamentary form of government is Prime Minister but in the Presidential form of Government, the President is the head of Government.
- The President of India is considered as the Head of the State and certain distinctive powers are vested in him/her.
In India, the President is elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of States and the Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry.
In U.S.A., citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballot for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for President.
- In India, all the major powers are conferred on the Prime Minister whereas the President is the most powerful authority in US Government.
- A balance of power has been depicted among the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary in the Constitution of India but Judiciary is the most powerful in the U.S.
- The parliament of US is known as US Congress.
- The Indian Parliament comprises of the President, Upper House, and Lower House.
- Both Indian Parliament and US Congress are bicameral.
- The Executive in India is collectively associated to the Legislature.
- The Executive in U.S. government is the President himself whereas in India the Executive means the Council of Ministers.
- In India number of representatives in the Council of States is decided on a proportional basis while in the U.S, the number of representatives in Senate is equal and always two for each state.
- There is only one constitution in India for the entire nation except for the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
- In the U.S the national Constitution permits its states to have their own state Constitutions.
Nature of Constitution
- Indian Constitution is both flexible and rigid in nature whereas Constitution of U.S. is comparatively rigid in nature.
DPSP and FR’s
- The Fundamental Rights stated in Part III of the Constitution of India is the civil and political charter of India.
- The Directive Principles specified in Part IV of the Constitution of India is the economic and social charter of India.
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