Few Important International Organisations - An Overview

International organisations are important for the UPSC exam. International Relations (IR) is a crucial segment of the UPSC syllabus and every year, questions are asked based on international organisations in the UPSC prelims and mains exams. We have covered the most important organisations like the World Bank, IMF, UN, G-7, etc. in various articles. This article focuses on a few other organisations that are also featured in the news regularly.

Aspirants would find this article very helpful while preparing for the IAS Exam.

G20 (G-20 or Group of Twenty)

  1. The G-20 is a group of 19 countries plus the European Union (EU) where members work for international economic cooperation.
  2. It started in 1999 as a forum for the Finance Ministers and central bank governors of the member countries in the aftermath of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.
  3. The members of the G-20 currently are:
    • Argentina
    • Australia
    • Brazil
    • Canada
    • China
    • France
    • Germany
    • India
    • Indonesia
    • Italy
    • Japan
    • Mexico
    • Russia
    • Saudi Arabia
    • South Africa
    • South Korea
    • Turkey
    • USA
    • UK
    • EU
  4. A chief aim of the G-20 is to promote discussion on and study and review of policy issues among industrialized countries and big emerging markets with a view to enhancing international financial stability.
  5. It works to better regulation and supervision in the financial sector, take up under debt management, stabilize exchange rate regimes, execute international standards and codes, and establish measures to lessen vulnerability to financial crisis to create a more stable international financial system.
  6. India will host the 2022 G-20 Summit.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

  1. OECD is an international, intergovernmental economic organization of 34 countries.
  2. It was founded in 1961 to promote world trade and economic development.
  3. India is not a member of the OECD but the organisation works with India on many fronts.

Read more on the OECD here.

Southern Common Market (Mercosur/Mercosul)

  1. The Southern Common Market (called Mercosur in Spanish and Mercosul in Portuguese) is a regional integration process in South America with the aim of its members being promoting free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people and currency in the region.
  2. It was established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991, which was signed by Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay. These are the four members of the body.
  3. It is headquartered in Montevideo, Uruguay, and it also plans to have a common parliament.
  4. The associated members are: Chile, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Guyana and Suriname. Venezuela’s membership was suspended in December 2016.

Colombo Plan

  1. The Colombo Plan is an intergovernmental regional organisation that works to strengthen the economic and social development of the member countries.
  2. It was formed in 1950 with Colombo, Sri Lanka as its headquarters.
  3. Its purpose in forming was to augment development in the newly independent Asian member countries.
  4. Starting with 7 countries, it currently has a membership of 27. India was a founding member. Four former members namely Canada, South Vietnam, UK and Cambodia are no longer members.
  5. The full name of the plan is the ‘Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic and Social Development in Asia and the Pacific’.
  6. It focuses on South-South cooperation.

Gulf Cooperation Council (GGC)

  1. Its full official name is: Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
  2. It was established by six Arab states (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar and Kuwait) in 1981.
  3. Its activities include economic cooperation, trade, agriculture, industry, energy, communications and information, and regional security.
  4. The council aims to have a customs union, common market, and a common currency in the future.

Multiple Choice Question (MCQ)

Consider the Following Statements

  1. It was established by four Arab states (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain) in 1981.
  2. India was a founding member of the Colombo Plan. Four former members namely Canada, South Vietnam, UK and Cambodia are still members of the grouping.
  3. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development was founded in 1961 to promote world trade and economic development
  4. India is not a member of the OECD but the organisation works with India on many fronts.

Which of the following Statements are True?

A) None of the statements are true.

B) All the 4 statements are True.

C) Only 1 and 4 are false.

D) Only 3 and 4 are true.

Answer: D

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The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2020.

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