Montane Forests of India

Montane forests can be classified into:

Wet Temperate Forests (1000-2000 meters) – Wet temperate forests are characterised by oak trees and chestnut trees. The mean annual rainfall here is 150 cm to 300 cm, the mean annual temperature is about 11°C to 14°C and the average relative humidity is over 80 per cent.These forests can be found in the higher hilly areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu , also in the region of Eastern Himalayas to the east of 88°E longitude including the hills of Assam,West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.Chilauni, Indian chestnut,Deodar, machilus, cinnamomum, litsea, plum, blue pine,birch, oak, hemlock, etc. are important species.

Temperate Forests (1500-3000 m) – Temperate forests cover the southern slopes of the Himalayas and are characterised by pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar trees. The overall length of mountain ranges in Kashmir, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh Sikkim and Darjeeling are covered by Himalayan temperate forests. The annual rainfall varies from 150 cm to 250 cm.Fine wood is provided by them which is of great use for timber, construction and sleepers of railways. Oaks, laurels, rhododendrons and some kinds of bamboos are also found in these forests.

Alpine Forests (more than 3600 m)-Alpine forests are characterised by silver fir, junipers, pines and birches trees. The south-west monsoon here is very feeble and the rainfall is below 100 cm, mostly snow. Lichens and mosses are found in the natural vegetation at higher altitudes.

Consider the following statements:

  • Wet temperate forests are characterised by oak trees.
  • Alpine forests are found 3600 m above sea level.

Which of the following statements are correct: a)1 only b)2 only c)Both 1 and 2 d)None of the above Answer: c

Also see-Infographics

            Western Ghats