NCERT Notes: Factors Controlling Temperature Distribution [Geography Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the IAS aspirants. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the Factors Controlling Temperature Distribution.

Factors Controlling Temperature Distribution
  • The temperature of air at every place is influenced by :
    • The latitude of the place
    • The altitude of the place
    • Distance from the sea
    • The air- mass circulation
    • The presence of warm and cold ocean currents
    • Local aspects
The latitude
  • The temperature of a place is determined by the insolation received.
  • The insolation differs according to the latitude, therefore, the temperature also differs consequently.
The altitude
  • The atmosphere is indirectly heated by terrestrial radiation.
  • Therefore, the places adjacent to the sea-level record higher temperatures than the places located at higher elevations.
  • The temperature usually decreases with increasing height.
  • The rate of decrease of temperature with height is called as the normal lapse rate.
Distance from the sea
  • The main factor that influences the temperature is the position of a place with respect to the sea.
  • The sea gets heated slowly and loses heat slowly compared to land.
  • Land heats up and cools down rapidly.
  • So, the difference in temperature over the sea is less compared to the terrestrial surface.
  • The places located near the sea come under the moderating influence of the sea and land breezes which regulate the temperature.
Air-mass and Ocean currents
  • The passage of air masses also affects the temperature like the land and sea breezes.
  • The places which come under the effect of warm air-masses experience higher temperature and the places that come under the influence of cold air- masses experience lower temperature.
  • Likewise, the places situated on the coast where the warm ocean currents flow record higher temperature than the places situated on the coast where the cold currents flow.

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