E-governance is rising through the various spheres of society and governments across the world are using information and communication technology especially the internet or web-based network, to provide services between government agencies and citizens.
In this article, we shall discuss in detail the different stages of E-Governance based of different models followed by different countries and organisations.
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E-Governance – Stages, Models and Characteristics
E-governance allows citizen direct participation of constituents in political activities going beyond government and includes E-democracy, E-voting and participating political activity online. Discussed below are a few models of E-Governance along with their key specifications and characteristics.
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Hiller and Belanger’s five-stages and Moon’s five-stage model
Different stages of e-governance are identified on a certain set of criteria. These stages are:
- Simple information dissemination (one-way communication)- is considered as the most basic form, as it is used for merely disseminating information;
- Two-way communication (request and response)- is characterised with e-mail system and information and data-transfer technologies in the form of the website;
- Service and financial transactions- is online services and financial transactions leading to web-based self-services:
- Integration (both vertical and horizontal)- in this stage the government would attempt inter and intra-governmental integration; and
- Political participation- this stage means online voting, online public forums and opinion surveys for more direct and wider interaction with the government.
UN’S Five Stage Model
Discussed below is the model suggested by the United Nations and American Society for Public Administration (UNASPA):
- Emerging presence – A single or a few independent government web sites provide formal but limited and static information
- Enhanced presence – Government web sites provide dynamic, specialized and regularly updated information
- Interactive presence – Government web sites act as a portal to connect users and service providers and the interaction takes place at a more sophisticated level
- Transactional presence – Users have the capability to conduct complete and secure transactions, such as renewing visas, obtaining passports and updating birth and death records through a single government web site
- Seamless or fully integrated presence – Governments utilize a single and universal web site to provide a one-stop portal in which users can immediately and conveniently access all kinds of available services
World Bank’s Three-Stage Model
- Publish – Developing nations can start the process of e-governance by publishing government information online, beginning with rules and regulations, documents and forms
- Interact – E-governance has the potential to involve citizens in the governance process by engaging them in interaction with policymakers throughout the policy cycle and at all levels of government. Strengthening civic engagement contributes to building public trust in government
- Transact – Governments can create websites that allow users to conduct transactions online. Potential cost savings, accountability through information logs and productivity improvements will be important drivers
Gartner’s four-stage model
- Web presence – Agencies provide a web site to post basic information to public
- Interaction – Users are able to contact agencies through web sites (e.g., e-mail) or do self-service (e.g., download document)
- Transaction – Users (including customers and businesses) can complete entire transactions (e.g., license application and procurement) online
- Transformation – Governments transform the current operational processes to provide more efficient, integrated, unified and personalized service
There are a few other models which are followed as well to define the different stages of E-governance.
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