12 Aug 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Quote for the day Set 5 11

CNA 12 Aug 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
GOVERNANCE
1. Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. Drug Shortages
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. Survey data on poverty and broad policy pointers
F. Prelims Facts
1. Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Bill 2021
G. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category: SOCIAL JUSTICE

1. Drug Shortages

Syllabus: Health-related issues

Mains: HIV treatment protocol

Context: People have been protesting outside the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) office for over 15 days against drug shortages for HIV-positive people.

What is the Issue?

  • Protestors allege arbitrary change in the drug regimen, rationing of medicines, and even complete deprivation of life-saving pediatric drugs leading to interruption in treatment resulting in drug resistance and deaths from AIDS. 
  • In December 2021, various states across the country started witnessing a shortage of certain drugs such as Dolutegravir 50 mg, Lopinavir/Ritonavir (adult and child doses), and Abacavir at the antiretroviral therapy (ART) centres.
  • The NACO is a nodal agency responsible for overlooking and coordinating activities of the National AIDS Control Programme. It functions under the Union Health and Family Welfare Ministry.
  • As per data provided by NACO, 95% of the recipients had not faced any shortage. This means 5% of 14.5 lakh that is 72,500 people, are being affected by the current shortage and stock-out. 
  • There are several complaints of NACO not considering the treatment protocol.

Treatment Protocol: Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) 

  • ART is the medication used to stop HIV from reproducing.
  • If the individual takes ART as prescribed, their viral load can become undetectable and CD4 cells will be protected to a certain extent.
  • If the HIV stays undetectable, the infected individuals can live long, healthy lives and have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to others.
  • The standard treatment consists of a combination of a minimum of 3 drugs that suppress HIV replication. Three drugs are used in order to reduce the likelihood of the virus developing resistance.

Components of ART therapy

  • A combination of 3 or more antiretroviral medicines is more effective by WHO standards
    • Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors – abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir.
    • Protease inhibitors (PIs) – atazanavir, darunavir, and ritonavir.
    • Non Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) – efavirenz, etravirine, and nevirapine.
    • Integrase inhibitors – dolutegravir and raltegravir.
    • Entry inhibitors – enfuvirtide and maraviroc.

Response by the administration:

  • NACO has requested all State AIDS Control Societies (SACS) to change existing treatment regimens as an interim measure to deal with the countrywide stock-out. This request did not take into consideration existing treatment protocols.
  • If there is an anticipated shortage at ART centres, various proactive steps were undertaken to ensure uninterrupted supply, through immediate relocation from nearby ART centres or from other States in consultation with the concerned SACS. 
  • District and State AIDS Control Societies have the authority to do emergency local procurement from their budgeted grant-in-aid provided by the Union government under the National AIDS Control Programme. 
    • Certain SACS have procured small quantities of the drugs locally as an interim measure. But a quality test revealed that some drugs did not meet the quality standards prescribed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules, raising concern about substandard drugs entering the supply chain.

Read more on AIDS in India.

Nut Graf: The HIV-positive community seeks streamlining of central procurement of HIV medicines and an uninterrupted supply of crucial medicines to safeguard the right to life of millions in the country who are at risk due to recent drug shortages across the country.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Bill 2021

Syllabus: Biodiversity and Environment- Conservation

Prelims: Wildlife Protection Act, 1972

Context: Recently, the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2021 was passed in Lok Sabha.

What is the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Bill 2021?

  • The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change introduced the bill in the 2021 winter session.
  • The bill seeks to amend the Wild Life Protection Act,1972 (WLPA) to increase the species protected under the law and implement the CITES.
  • The Bill inserts a new schedule to WLPA for specimens listed in the Appendices under CITES (scheduled specimens).
  • The Bill empowers the Union government to regulate or prohibit the import, possession or trade of invasive alien species.  
  • The Bill empowers the Union government to notify a conservation reserve for protecting flora and fauna, and their habitat. Earlier, under the Act, only state governments could declare areas adjacent to national parks and sanctuaries as conservation reserves.
  • As per the provisions of the Bill, the Union government can designate a management authority to grant export or import permits for the trade of specimens and the Scientific Authority to advise on aspects related to the impact on the survival of the specimens being traded.
  • The Bill increases the fines for violating the provisions of the Act.

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G. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements with respect to Vice-President of India: (Level- Easy)
  1. To be eligible for election as Vice-President, he/she should be qualified for election as a member of the lower house.
  2. The oath of office to the Vice-President is administered by the Chief Justice of India and in his absence, the seniormost judge of the Supreme Court available.
  3. If the office falls vacant by resignation, removal, death or otherwise, then an election to fill the vacancy should be held within six months from the date of the occurrence of such a vacancy.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation: 

  • Statement 1 is incorrect, An Indian citizen who has completed 35 years of age is qualified to become the Vice-President of India given he is also qualified to be a Rajya Sabha/Upper House member. 
  • Statement 2 is incorrect, The President of India administers the oath to the vice president.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect, there is no provision of a ‘six-month’ time frame to fill the vacancy to the post of Vice president as in the case for the President of India in the Indian Constitution.

Read more on the Vice President of India.

Q2. With respect to Elephants, which of the following statements is/are correct? 
(Level-Medium)
  1. Asian Elephant is listed as Endangered on the IUCN red list.
  2. Only some male Asian elephants have tusks, while both male and female African elephants grow tusks.
  3. There are two species of African elephants—the savanna (or bush) elephant and the forest elephant. Forest elephants are larger than Savanna elephants, and their tusks curve outwards.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct, The Asian elephant has been listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List since 1986 as the elephant population has declined over the last 60-55 years. 
  • Statement 2 is correct, Only some male Asian elephants have tusks, while both male and female African elephants grow tusks.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect, The African elephant was recently split into two different species, the African forest elephant and the African savanna elephant, by IUCN. 
    • Critically Endangered African savanna elephants are larger and their tusks curve outward. The tusks of the  Endangered African forest elephant are straighter, pointing downward, and they have more rounded ears.
Elephant species

Image Credit: Elephant Aid International

Q3. The United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 39 (1948) is concerned with 
(Level-Medium)
  1. Admission of new Members to the UN
  2. Israel-Palestine political solution
  3. Resolution of the Kashmir conflict
  4. The situation concerning Iraq
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: United Nations Security Council Resolution 39, adopted on January 20, 1948, offered to assist in the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir Conflict by setting up a commission of three members.

Q4. Consider the following Pairs: (Level-Difficult)

               Waterfalls                     State

  1. Kunchikal Falls                 Karnataka
  2. Barehipani Falls                  Odisha
  3. Nohkalikai Falls                Meghalaya
  4. Vajrai Falls                       Maharashtra
  5. Wei Sawdong Falls            Mizoram

Which of the above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 3, 4 and 5 only
  3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Pair one is correctly matched, Kunchikal Falls is formed by Varahi River in Shimoga district of Karnataka. It is India’s highest waterfall with a height of 1493 feet.
  • Pair two is correctly matched, Barehipani Falls is a two-tiered waterfall located in Simlipal National Park, Odisha. The waterfall is situated on the Budhabalanga river flowing over the Meghasani mountain of the Eastern Ghats.
  • Pair three is correctly matched, Nohkalikai Falls is the tallest plunge waterfall in India with a height of 340 meters. It is located in Meghalaya. Nohkalikai Falls is located on the edge of the Cherrapunji Plateau and is always fed by the rain.
  • Pair four is correctly matched, The Vajrai Waterfall is located on the Urmodi river in Maharashtra. It is the second highest plunge waterfall in India with a drop of 335 meters.
  • Pair five is incorrectly matched, Wei Sawdong Falls is a three-tiered waterfall located in Meghalaya.

Read more on the highest waterfalls in India.

Q5. With reference to Convertible Bonds, consider the following statements: (Level-Medium) 
(CSE-Prelims-2022)
  1. As there is an option to exchange the bond for equity, Convertible Bonds pay a lower rate of interest.
  2. The option to convert to equity affords the bondholder a degree of indexation to rising consumer prices.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: 

  • Statement 1 is correct, Convertible bonds offer a lower coupon rate in exchange for the value of the option to convert the bond into common stock.
  • Statement 2 is correct, The option to convert to equity affords the bondholder a degree of indexation to rising consumer prices as equity prices can differ widely from the given interest and the difference in that can be used as a hedge for the inflation.

CNA 12 Aug 2022:- Download PDF Here

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