03 Dec 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 03 Dec 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Stop NATO expansion, Russia tells U.S.
2. Four-pronged plan on Sri Lanka crisis
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
AGRICULTURE
1. A white touch to a refreshed green revolution
AIR POLLUTION
1. Breathing fresh air into the NCR’s pollution control
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. ART Bill Features and Concerns
F. Prelims Facts
1. Paika rebellion to be in history textbooks
2. The making of the Republic of Barbados
G. Tidbits
1. Wind power up
2. ‘Manpower, training key to success of cyber stations’
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

2. Four-pronged plan on Sri Lanka crisis

Topic: India and its Neighborhood-Relations

Prelims: Currency swap agreement

Mains: Challenges to the bilateral relationship between India and Sri Lanka; Measures being taken

Context:

  • Sri Lankan Finance Minister’s visit to New Delhi amid the economic crisis in Sri Lanka.
    • Sri Lanka’s government has declared an economic emergency amid rising food prices, a depreciating currency, and rapidly depleting forex reserves.

Details:

  • India and Sri Lanka have agreed to a four-pronged approach to help mitigate Sri Lanka’s economic crisis.
    • India would provide lines of credit for food, medicines and fuel purchases.
    • India and Sri Lanka would sign a currency swap agreement to help Sri Lanka deal with its balance of payment issues.
      • A currency swap is a transaction in which two parties exchange an equivalent amount of money with each other but in different currencies. The parties are essentially loaning each other money and will repay the amounts at a specified date and exchange rate.
      • Central banks and Governments engage in currency swaps with foreign counterparts to meet short term foreign exchange liquidity requirements or to ensure adequate foreign currency to avoid the Balance of Payments (BOP) crisis till longer arrangements can be made.
    • Sri Lanka has committed to finalizing quickly the proposed modernisation project of the Trincomalee oil farms by India.
    • Sri Lanka has also committed to facilitating Indian investments in various sectors.
      • India and Sri Lanka have had a number of differences on economic issues in the past two years, particularly over the perception that the current Sri Lankan Government has favoured Chinese companies over Indian companies in infrastructural projects.
  • India and Sri Lanka have agreed to open direct lines of communication and to be in direct and regular contact with each other to coordinate the proposed four-pillar initiative.

For more related information refer to the following article:

UPSC Exam CNA of 1st Aug 2021: Sri Lanka seeks to reset relations with India

Category: AIR POLLUTION

1. Breathing fresh air into the NCR’s pollution control

Topic: Environmental pollution and degradation

Prelims: National Green Tribunal, National Clean Air Programme (NCAP).

Mains:  Various steps to control the menace of air pollution in Delhi-NCR

Context

The National Green Tribunal (NGT) had begun the process of taking a new look at the menace of air pollution in Delhi-NCR by asking the Government to list its causes.

Air pollution in Delhi-NCR

For more on the air pollution in Delhi-NCR, its causes and the steps taken to control it, click on the linked article.

Lessons from Beijing:

The UN Environment Programme’s review of Beijing’s control of air pollution provides useful lessons for policymakers. The population size of both cities, Beijing and Delhi, is comparable.

  1. The need is to deal with urban air pollution in three stages. It starts with end-of-pipe air pollution control gradually moving to integrated measures targeting primary pollutants (SO2, NO2, PM10, and CO), with the Government playing the main role. Later, secondary pollutants, or particulate matter leading to smog, primarily PM2.5, become the main focus for control.
  2. In Beijing what really made a difference was not shutting down polluting units, restricting car ownership and travel, and improved fuel standards but the approach to urbanisation. Beijing provides more space for public transport and mixed land use spatial planning minimising travel.
  3. In Beijing, policy focus gradually changed from gasoline vehicle emissions to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. Phasing out older vehicles made the most significant contribution. Beijing plans to have 48 lakh charging points by 2022 to push the use of electric vehicles.
  4. Innovative implementation steps were instituted in Beijing, like economic incentives were tailored for the specific problem. Municipal environmental enforcement teams do specific inspections and hotspot grid supervision based on a detailed emission inventory for each source.

Way Forward

Reducing air pollution in the national capital is a pressing need for which both the governments and the citizens should play their part. The government should enforce all the legislations necessary and see that they are properly implemented. Citizens should comply with the laws and regulations and do their part as well. Afforestation measures should be encouraged. Renewable energy sources should be adopted more and the usage of electric vehicles encouraged, for which the necessary infrastructure should also be built. Farmers should also be provided with viable alternatives to stubble burning.

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. ART Bill Features and Concerns

Topic: Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.

Prelims: Key Features of the ART Bill

Mains: Provisions and Concerns Related to ART Bill

Context: 

  • Recently, the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2020 has been passed in the Lok Sabha.

The objective of the bill: 

  • The Bill seeks to provide for the regulation of Assisted Reproductive Technology services in the country and make provisions for its safe and ethical practice.

Definition of ART:

  • The Bill defines ART to include all techniques that seek to obtain a pregnancy by handling the sperm or the oocyte (immature egg cell) outside the human body and transferring the gamete or the embryo into the reproductive system of a woman. 

Key Features of the Bill:

  • Registration of ART clinics and banks: The Bill provides that every ART clinic and bank must be registered under the National Registry of Banks and Clinics of India. The National Registry will be established under the Bill and will act as a central database with details of all ART clinics and banks in the country.  
  • Boards: The Bill provides that the National and State Boards constituted under the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019 will also act as the National and State Boards for the regulation of ART services. 
  • Eligibility criteria for donors: A bank can obtain semen from males between 21 and 55 years of age, and eggs from females between 23 and 35 years of age. An egg donor should be an ever-married woman having at least one alive child of her own (minimum three years of age). The woman can donate eggs only once in her life and not more than seven eggs can be retrieved from her.
  • Conditions for offering services: ART procedures can only be carried out with the written consent of the commissioning parties and the donor. The party seeking ART services will be required to provide insurance coverage in the favour of the oocyte donor (for any loss, damage, or death of the donor).
  • Rights of a child born through ART: A child born through ART will be deemed to be a biological child of the commissioning couple and will be entitled to the rights and privileges available to a natural child of the commissioning couple. A donor will not have any parental rights over the child.
  • Offences and penalties: Offences under the Bill include: (i) abandoning, or exploiting children born through ART, (ii) selling, purchasing, trading, or importing human embryos or gametes, and (iii) exploiting the commissioning couple, woman, or the gamete donor in any form. These offences will be punishable with a fine between five and ten lakh rupees for the first contravention. For subsequent contraventions, these offences will be punishable with imprisonment between eight and twelve years, and a fine between 10 and 20 lakh rupees.

Concerns:

Exclusivity:

  • Although the bill is very progressive by its very nature, it glaringly excludes members of the LGBTQIA+ community, single men and cohabiting heterosexual couples from accessing ARTs. As citizens, these groups too have the right to exercise reproductive rights.
  • Bill allows foreigners to access ART but not Indian citizens in loving relationships. This is an illogical result that fails to represent the actual spirit of the Constitution.

Inadequate protection for donors:

  • The Bill mandates the egg donor’s written consent but fails to provide for her counselling or the ability to withdraw her consent before or during the procedure.
  • For loss of salary, time and effort, the donor receives no compensation or reimbursement of expenses. Failing to pay for bodily services amounts to unfree labour, which is outlawed by Article 23 of the Constitution.

Overlap between ART and SSB (Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, (SRB) 2019):

  • Surrogacy and ART procedures are regulated by different bills. These bills provide for different registration procedures for clinics and specify different age-related eligibility criteria. It is unclear why the two Bills differ on these common aspects of registration and eligibility.

Know more about the Surrogacy Regulation Bill in the linked article.

Conclusion:

  • Bill that the government of the land intends to make law, cannot be exclusivist at the very outset. The laws on reproductive rights must recognise differences in orientation, relationship choices. 
  • The ART Bill must be thoroughly reviewed before it is passed as it involves various constitutional, medico-legal, ethical, and regulatory concerns.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Paika rebellion to be in history textbooks

Paika rebellion:

Know more about the Paika Rebellion in the linked article.

Context:

  • The Union Culture Minister’s statement on the Paika rebellion in the ongoing parliamentary session over demands for declaration of the Paika rebellion as the first war of Indian independence.

2. The making of the Republic of Barbados

Republic:

  • A republic is a form of government in which “power is held by the people and their elected representatives”. Here the citizens have the supreme power, and they exercise that power by voting and electing representatives to make decisions and govern.
  • A Republic means the head of the State is elected and not a hereditary monarch. India is considered as a ‘Republic’ mainly because: the head of the State (President) is elected.
  • Republics come in different forms of government, but a common one is a democracy.

Context:

  • The Caribbean island nation of Barbados has declared itself a republic, making it the newest republic in the world.

G. Tidbits

1. Wind power up

  • The total installed capacity of wind power in India as of October 2021 stands at 39.99 GW. It accounts for nearly 10% of India’s total installed electrical generation capacity.
  • The wind resource assessment conducted by the National Institute of Wind Energy indicates an estimated wind power potential of 695.5 GW in India.

2. ‘Manpower, training key to success of cyber stations’

  • Dedicated cybercrime police stations have been opened in Delhi.
  • Given the increasing digitalization and the increasing threat of cybercrimes, dedicated police stations are a good initiative. Dedicated cybercrime police stations will allow for prompt action against cases of cybercrime.
  • To make this initiative a success there is the need to ensure that the required manpower is deployed in such stations and they are well-trained and are provided with the necessary and latest technological tools and infrastructure to handle such cybercrime cases.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. With reference to extra-tropical cyclones, which of the following statements is/are 
correct?
  1. They have a clear frontal system which is not present in tropical cyclones.
  2. They can originate over both land and sea.
  3. They move from west to east.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Extratropical cyclone, also called wave cyclone or midlatitude cyclone, is a type of storm system formed in middle or high latitudes, in regions of large horizontal temperature variations called frontal zones.

Difference between tropical and temperate cyclones

Q2. Consider the following statements:
  1. The Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore works on the protection, preservation and documentation of all the mother tongues/languages of India spoken by less than 1,00,000 people.
  2. UNESCO operates with four levels of language endangerment between “safe” and “extinct”.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • The policy of the Government is to promote all Indian Languages including endangered languages. The Government of India has initiated a Scheme known as “Scheme for Protection and Preservation of Endangered Languages of India” (SPPEL). Under this Scheme, the Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore works on the protection, preservation and documentation of all the mother tongues/languages of India spoken by less than 10,000 people which are called endangered languages.
  • UNESCO operates with four levels of language endangerment between “safe” (not endangered) and “extinct” (no living speakers), based on intergenerational transfer: “vulnerable” (not spoken by children outside the home), “definitely endangered” (children not speaking), “severely endangered” (only spoken by the oldest generations), and “critically endangered” (spoken by a few members of the oldest generation, often semi-speakers).
Degree of endangerment of languages - UNESCO classification

Image source: https://blog.itranslate.com/

Q3. Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?

      Festival                                                  State

  1. Hornbill                                             Nagaland
  2. Wangala                                            Meghalaya
  3. Myoko                                                   Assam

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Myoko festival is associated with the state of Arunachal Pradesh.

Q4. Donbas conflict is a dispute between
  1. Greece and Turkey
  2. France and United Kingdom
  3. Russia and Ukraine
  4. Belarus and Poland
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • The Donbas region is a conflict zone where Ukraine has been battling Russia-backed separatists.
Russia - Ukraine Conflict

Image source: www.aljazeera.com

Q5. With reference to Indian freedom struggle, consider the following events: (UPSC 2017)
  1. Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy
  2. Quit India Movement launched
  3. Second Round Table Conference

What is the correct chronological sequence of the above events?

  1. 1-2-3
  2. 2-1-3
  3. 3-2-1
  4. 3-1-2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Second Round Table Conference – 1931.
  • Quit India Movement was launched on 8 August 1942.
  • The Royal Indian Navy mutiny or revolt, also called the 1946 Naval Uprising, was an insurrection of Indian naval ratings, soldiers, police personnel and civilians against the British government in India.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. The answer to birth control lies in ensuring improved access to contraception and not in government-imposed restrictions. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words; 15 marks)[GS-1, Indian Society]
  2. Throw some light on the lessons that India can learn from China’s fight against air pollution. (250 words; 15 marks)[GS-3, Environment and Ecology]

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 03 Dec 2021:- Download PDF Here

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