12 May 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 12th May 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. What’s happening in Jerusalem?
C. GS 3 Related
ECONOMY
1. MFI sector urges RBI backing for emergency credit support
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
HEALTH
1. A matter of concern
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Evaluate the Ladakh crisis, keep China at bay
F. Prelims Facts
1. How to adopt a child legally
G. Tidbits
1. Saudi aid worth $123 mn announced for Pakistan
2. Rajasthan to use MLA fund for vaccination
3. Moody’s lowers India’s growth projection to 9.3%
4. Not all crises are opportunities for reforms
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

Category: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. Evaluate the Ladakh crisis, keep China at bay

Context:

  • Ongoing Ladakh stand-off between India and China.

Background:

Unresolved issues:

  • After over a year, the stand-off between Indian and Chinese troops in eastern Ladakh shows no signs of resolution. Disengagement has stalled, China continues to reinforce its troops, and talks have been fruitless.

Implications on the bilateral relation:

  • The India-China bilateral relationship has ruptured and is marked by increasing hostility and distrust.
  • India has reversed its long-held policy and has stated that it will no longer overlook the problematic border dispute for the sake of a potentially lucrative wider relationship with China.
  • Even if disengagement happens it is very likely that the relationship will remain vulnerable to destabilising disruptions along the LAC.

Details:

  • The Ladakh crisis offers India three key lessons in managing the intensifying strategic competition with China.

Revamping military strategies:

  • The Indian military’s standing doctrine calls for deterring adversaries with the threat of massive punitive retaliation for any aggression, capturing enemy territory as bargaining leverage in post-war talks.
  • However, the experience from the Ladakh stand-off seems to indicate that military strategies based on denial are more useful than strategies based on punishment.
    • The threat of retaliation did not deter China from launching unprecedented incursions in May 2020.
    • The Indian military’s occupation of the heights on the Kailash Range on its side of the LAC in late August, an act of denial, helped deny key terrain to the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA), and gave the Indian Army a stronger defensive position from which it could credibly defend a larger segment of its front line.
  • The doctrine of denial will serve the following benefits for India.
    • The focus on denial will give the Indian military greater capacity to thwart future land grabs across the LAC.
    • This strategy is also more likely than punishment to preserve crisis stability.
    • In the long term, improved denial capabilities may allow India to reduce the resource drain of the increased militarisation of the LAC.

Imposing political costs on China:

  • Given the fact that China’s defence budget is three to four times larger than India’s, the material burden of the crisis is unlikely to disrupt China’s existing priorities along the LAC, which is aimed at making small tactical gains along the disputed border to ensure a stronger say in the negotiations.
  • China is more likely to be deterred or coerced with the threat of political costs, rather than material costs.
  • India successfully raised the risks of the crisis for China through its threat of a political rupture by restricting bilateral trade and investment while also indicating India’s inclination towards greater participation with the Quad.
  • The prospect of a permanently hostile India seems to be a very high price for China given the rising anti-Chinese sentiments.
  • Given the limits of individual nations, even large powers such as India, to tackle the increasing assertiveness of China, should focus on coordinated or collective action with other like-minded countries.

Focus on Indian Ocean Region:

  • The Ladakh crisis, by prompting an increased militarisation of the LAC, may prompt India to defer long-overdue military modernisation and maritime expansion into the Indian Ocean. This is a cause of concern.
  • India should rather consider accepting more risk on the LAC in exchange for long-term leverage and influence in the Indian Ocean Region due to the following reasons.
    • India has traditionally been the dominant power in the Indian Ocean Region and stands to cede significant political influence and security if it fails to counter the rapid expansion of Chinese military power in the region.
    • The difficult terrain and more even balance of military force means that China could only eke out minor, strategically modest gains at best.

Conclusion:

  • The measures as recommended on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and beyond, will help ensure that India is better postured to meet the challenge posed by an increasingly assertive China and manage the strategic competition with it.

F. Prelims Facts

1. How to adopt a child legally

  • According to UNICEF, India has over 30 million orphan and abandoned children.
  • The prospective adoptive parents must register on the Child Adoption Resource Information and Guidance System (CARINGS).
  • The Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) is a statutory body for the regulation, monitoring and control of all intra-country and inter-country adoptions.
  • CARA grants a ‘no objection’ certificate for all inter-country adoptions, pursuant to India becoming a signatory to the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoptions.
  • Rehabilitation of all orphaned, abandoned and surrendered children is regulated by the strict mandatory procedures of the Adoption Regulations.
  • India is a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

G. Tidbits

1. Saudi aid worth $123 mn announced for Pakistan

What’s in News?

Imran Khan’s 2-day visit to Riyadh.

  • Saudi Arabia has announced 118 humanitarian projects worth over $123 million for Pakistan in food security, health, education and water.
  • It has provided medical and preventive aid worth over $1.5 million to combat the pandemic.
  • Also, the Pakistan Prime Minister met the Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and discussed developments in the Islamic world, the situation of Muslims in non-OIC countries and the issues on the OIC’s agenda, in particular combating Islamophobia.

Read more on OIC.

2. Rajasthan to use MLA fund for vaccination

What’s in News?

As part of the efforts to mobilise financial resources for the COVID-19 vaccination of people in the age group of 18 to 44 years, Rajasthan Chief Minister has approved a proposal to provide ₹3 crore each from the MLA Local Area Development (LAD) Fund.

  • For meeting the expenses, the fund for each legislator has been increased from ₹2.25 crore to ₹5 crore a year.
  • The 200 MLAs in the State will contribute a total of ₹600 crore to the vaccination fund account under the Chief Minister’s Relief Fund.
  • From the remaining ₹2 crore in the MLA-LAD Fund, ₹1 crore will be spent on strengthening the medical infrastructure, purchase of equipment and setting up of model community health centres.

3. Moody’s lowers India’s growth projection to 9.3%

What’s in News?

Moody’s Investors Service has sharply scaled down the growth projection for India to 9.3% from its earlier estimate of 13.7%.

  • Moody’s cited the negative impact of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic for scaling down the growth projections.
  • It has warned that the spread of the coronavirus, as well as the rate of vaccinations, will have a direct impact on economic outcomes.

It suggested that spending will have to be redirected towards healthcare and virus response relative to what the government had budgeted for the FY-2021-22.

4. Not all crises are opportunities for reforms

  • In its recent research report, Pew Research Center observes that a large section of India’s population would be pushed into poverty as a fallout of the economic crisis driven by the novel coronavirus.
  • The number of people who are poor in India (with incomes of $2 or less a day) is estimated to have increased by 75 million because of the COVID-19 recession.
  • This accounts for nearly 60% of the global increase in poverty.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q.1 What are S&P, Moody’s and Fitch, which are often seen in news and referred to as the 
‘Big Three’?
  1. Multinational private banks
  2. Legal consulting firms
  3. Credit rating agencies
  4. Multilateral lending institutions
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • S&P, Moody’s and Fitch are referred to as the ‘Big three Credit rating agencies’.
  • A credit rating agency assigns credit ratings that rate a debtor’s ability to pay back debt by making timely principal and interest payments as well as the likelihood of default.
  • An agency may rate the creditworthiness of issuers of debt obligations, of debt instruments, and in some cases, of the servicers of the underlying debt, but not of individual consumers.
Q.2 Which of the following statements is/are correct?
  1. Cyclonic activity is comparatively less intense in the Arabian Sea, as compared to the Bay of Bengal.
  2. Arabian Sea cyclones are also relatively weak compared to those emerging in the Bay of Bengal.
  3. But the number of cyclones that form in the Arabian Sea in a year is roughly the same as the number of cyclones that form in the Bay of Bengal.

Options:-

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • While cyclonic activity is comparatively less intense in the Arabian Sea, high-intensity severe cyclones originate frequently in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Arabian Sea cyclones are also relatively weak compared to those emerging in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Bay of Bengal witnesses more cyclones in a given year as compared to the Arabian Sea. This is because:
    • The Bay of Bengal is warmer than the Arabian Sea, it is able to provide the heat energy needed to sustain the low-pressure system.
    • The Bay of Bengal receives higher rainfall and a constant inflow of fresh water from the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. This means that the Bay’s surface water keeps getting refreshed, making it impossible for the warm water to mix with the cooler water below, making it ideal for depression.
    • The absence of a large landmass between the Pacific and the Bay, allows cyclonic winds to easily move into the Bay of Bengal.
    • Low-pressure system originating from the Pacific Ocean also travel towards the left to the Bay of Bengal.
Q.3 Which of the following statements is/are correct?
  1. Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) is an autonomous and statutory body mandated to monitor and regulate in-country and inter-country adoptions.
  2. CARA is responsible for granting a ‘no objection’ certificate for all inter­-country adoptions, pursuant to India becoming a signatory to the 1993 Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co­operation in Respect of Inter-country Adoptions.
  3. India is also a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Options:-

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

All the statements are correct.

  • Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) is an autonomous and statutory body mandated to monitor and regulate in-country and inter-country adoptions.
  • It is responsible for granting a ‘no objection’ certificate for all inter­-country adoptions, pursuant to India becoming a signatory to the 1993 Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co­operation in Respect of Inter-country Adoptions.
  • India is a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Q.4 Which of the following are located to the west and east of Strait of Hormuz respectively?
  1. Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman
  2. Arabian Sea and Iran
  3. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait
  4. Iran and Qatar
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

Oil Transit Route through Strait of Hormuz

Q.5 Which of the following countries are members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation 
(OIC)?
  1. Saudi Arabia
  2. Pakistan
  3. India
  4. Turkey

Options:-

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation founded in 1969 has 57 members, with 42 countries being Muslim majority countries. India is not a member of OIC.

Q6. Consider the following statements: (UPSC 2016)

The India-Africa Summit

  1. held in 2015 was the third such Summit.
  2. was actually initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • India-Africa summits started in 2008 with New Delhi as its first venue. It is the key diplomatic initiative of India to reach out to the African countries, especially the members of the African Union.
  • Since then, it was decided to hold these summits every three years, alternately in India and Africa.
  • The second summit was held in Addis Ababa in 2011.
  • The third summit, scheduled to be held in 2014, was postponed because of the Ebola outbreak and took place in October 2015.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Examine in detail the latest Israel-Palestinian clashes. (250 words; 15 marks) [GS-2, International Relations]
  2. The character and consequences of the economic crisis of 1991 and 2021 are different. Analyse. (250 words; 15 marks) [GS-3, Economy]

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 12th May 2021:- Download PDF Here

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