# 16 May 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 16 May 2022:-

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Finland’s bid to join NATO
HEALTH
1. Understanding Long COVID and its effects
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
SOCIAL ISSUES
1. This Delhi High Court split verdict needs to be resolved
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. The importance of Lumbini
GOVERNANCE
F. Prelims Facts
G. Tidbits
1. Indian company produces tactical battery for battlefield
2. ‘Only one State can decide on remission’
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions


1. Understanding Long COVID and its effects

Syllabus: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

Mains: Symptoms associated with Long COVID and various measures to address the same.

Context

Background

• With no universally-accepted definition, post-COVID Syndrome is regarded as signs and symptoms that develop during or after an infection consistent with COVID-19 which continue for more than 12 weeks and are not explained by alternative diagnosis.
• A recent Lancet report calls for more attention towards Long COVID syndrome.
• Survivors of COVID infection have exhibited lower health status compared to normal people.

Long COVID

• Reports have proved that a sizable number of people who have recovered from COVID-19 infections experienced long-term effects on multiple organs and systems.
• Long term effects have also been reported in people who did not exhibit any COVID related symptoms in their infection stage.
• Conventionally, post-COVID is regarded as symptoms that continue for four weeks after infection and Long COVID refers to symptoms that persist for 12 weeks past an infection.
• The symptoms include skin rashes, sleep difficulties, fatigue, muscle weakness, hair loss, joint pain, palpitations, dizziness, cough, headache, sore throat, chest pain, smell and taste disorders, anxiety and mobility issues.

Lancet study

• The study for the first time defined Long COVID as the longest time possible of two years.
• The study monitored the changes in the health outcomes in COVID survivors with different initial disease severity throughout the two years post an acute infection.
• The study points out that the share of individuals with at least one consequent symptom decreased from 68% at six months to 55% at two years.
• The study also reported an improvement in most of the domains, particularly in terms of anxiety or depression
• Nearly 89 % of individuals who were hospitalised for COVID, returned to their normal work by the end of two years.
• The study finds that at two years post-infection, long COVID symptoms were mainly related to a decline in health-related quality of life, exercise capacity, psychological abnormality, and increased dependence on health care post-discharge.
• At two-year check-up, the COVID-19 survivors still exhibited few symptoms, problems, discomfort, along with increased anxiety or depression
• Also, among the ones who had received higher-level respiratory support during their infection stage a higher number of survivors experienced persistent respiratory issues.

India’s context

• The Indian government has formulated the National Comprehensive Guidelines for the management of post-COVID symptoms.
• The document provides a detailed process to treat post-COVID complications affecting cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nephrological, neurological and respiratory systems.
•  Many hospitals in the country have established COVID wards to treat individuals with post-COVID symptoms.
• In January 2022, a hospital in New Delhi outlined that individuals infected in the second wave of COVID experienced four times more Long COVID conditions and multiple symptoms such as high-grade fever, diarrhoea and severe lung infection than those from the first wave.
• The hospital reported that patients experienced severe weakness and fatigue even after a year post-infection.
• Experts believe that both Post COVID and Long COVID complications in India are fewer.
• Experts also added that the principles of immunology such as the immunogenic response to vaccination have largely remained uniform across the world but Long COVID symptoms will not be the same throughout the world as these are health conditions.

Nut Graf
As a significant proportion of COVID survivors are experiencing long term symptoms that can have severe implications on the overall health of the individuals, healthcare experts and policymakers must come up with a holistic medical management plan that can help address these symptoms and ensure a better quality of life.

CNA 16 May 2022:-