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12 Sep 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Quote for the day Set 5 11

CNA 12 Sep 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Ukraine- Russia Conflict
C. GS 3 Related
INTERNAL SECURITY
1. Greyhounds
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNAL SECURITY
1. We need civil society engagement in Kashmir
INDIAN ECONOMY
1. The crisis of apple farmers
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. India-Bangladesh ties, a model for bilateral cooperation
F. Prelims Facts
1. Project 17A
G. Tidbits
1. Asia Cup
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category: INDIAN ECONOMY

1. The crisis of apple farmers

Syllabus: Issues relating to direct and indirect farm subsidies/ Minimum support price.

Mains: Apple production and marketing issue.

Context:  Agitations by apple growers in Himachal Pradesh.

Developments in Himachal Pradesh regarding the production of Apples:

  • During the period of 1970s and 1980s, Himachal Pradesh undertook a slew of measures to boost apple production. These measures are listed below:
    • Nurseries were set up and plants were distributed to farmers on a large scale.
    • Transport subsidy was provided along with concession on tools.
    • Special monetary help was offered to the poor and Dalit sections.
    • Land reforms were implemented on a wide scale and no one was left landless. The land was distributed through a procedure of Nau Taur (which means breaking new land).
    • The land was transferred to those who tilled it. 
    • Moreover, the statute restricts the transfer of land to any individual who is not an agriculturist of Himachal Pradesh.

The reasons for the apple crisis:

  • During the 1990s things started changing with:
    • Increasing land fragmentation
    • The state withdrew the support and productivity declined
    • The unsustainability of agriculture 
    • The cost of production of agricultural items experienced an upswing and the remunerative prices were denied to the marginal and poor producers.
  • The major reasons for the current crisis are:
    • The rising cost of production: 
      • The input cost of insecticides, fungicides,  and fertilizers has risen by approximately  300% during the last decade. 
      • Similarly, prices of apple cartons/trays/packaging have also increased considerably. 
    • The second and immediate trigger for the agitation is the increase of GST on cartons from 12% to 18%. The reason cited for the increase was to force the farmers to sell their produce to big buyers rather than selling in the open market. This will result in leaving the apple farmers at the mercy of large buyers during the procurement procedure.
      • Though the price of the cartons is reduced as the big buyer procures apples in plastic trays, the procurement is only of high-quality apples. These apples constitute only 20%-30% of the total production.
      • The declaration of procurement rates by the big players results in a market crash and brings a substantial fall in procurement prices. This is despite the fact that procurement is only about 5%-7% of the total produce. 
      • Moreover, unlike in Jammu and Kashmir, there is no law in Himachal Pradesh to fix a minimum rate of procurement.
    • The government is lacking the capability to subside the pressure of big players and regulate the market by fixing a minimum procurement price. 

Measure Ahead:

An independent body can be established which garners the support and trust of the apple growers. The body should include all the stakeholders like the government, apple growers, commission agents, and the market players. This body should be provided a statutory backing. 

Related Links: Market Intervention Scheme UPSC Notes – About MIS, Implementation, Market Intervention Price, Funds Transfer, Latest News, and FAQs

Nut Graf: The small and marginal apple farmers will be impacted severely by the current crisis and might be thrown out of this ecosystem if the concerns are not addressed in time. Moreover,  the economy of approximately ₹5,500 crores will also be hampered if the actions are not taken.

Category: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. India-Bangladesh ties, a model for bilateral cooperation

Syllabus: India and its neighborhood relations.

Mains: India- Bangladesh relations.

Context:  The visit of the Bangladesh Prime Minister to India.

Outcomes of the India- Bangladesh Bilateral meeting:

For detailed information on the meeting read here:  07 Sep 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

For more on India- Bangladesh relations, read here: India-Bangladesh Relations | 50 Years of Indo-Bangladesh Diplomatic Relations [UPSC Notes]

The causes of concern with Bangladesh:

  • Rohingya Issue: It creates pressure on the economy and social harmony of Bangladesh as there are nearly one million Rohingya migrants since 2017. Bangladesh is expecting India’s support in accommodating as well as facilitating their return to Myanmar.
  • Agreement on Teesta: The agreement on sharing the Teesta river waters is pending since 2011 because of West Bengal’s reluctance.
  • Chinese Presence: India’s sensitivity to growing cooperation between Bangladesh and China is apprehending Bangladesh’s authorities. Bangladesh’s view is not to interfere in India-China relations.
  • Minority Safety: Both countries have faced the issue vis-a-vis the safety of the minority population. There are incidents of attacks on the Hindus in Bangladesh. Similar incidents have also been reported in India.

For more on India- Bangladesh relations, read here: India-Bangladesh Relations | 50 Years of Indo-Bangladesh Diplomatic Relations [UPSC Notes]

Related Links: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis. Sep 8th, 2022 CNA. Download PDF

05 Sep 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Indo-Bangladesh Connectivity & Economic Partnership: RSTV – Big Picture Analysis for UPSC IAS exam.

AIR Spotlight: India – Bangladesh Relations [UPSC Notes] Download PDF

Nut Graf: India and Bangladesh have constantly strengthened their relationship in the past fifty years by efficiently cooperating and addressing the challenges. However, there still remain some issues that need consideration. Once these challenges are countered, the relationship can be projected as a major success in foreign policy.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Project 17A

Syllabus:Indigenization of Technology & Developing New Technology

Prelims: Stealth Frigate

Context: Taragiri, the third stealth frigate of Project 17A, was launched recently.

Taragiri:

  • It is the third stealth frigate of the Project 17A, launched  by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd. (MDL) in Mumbai.
    • ‘Taragiri’ was named after a hill range in the Himalayas located at Garhwal.
  • The ship has been built using integrated construction methodology which involves hull blocks construction in different geographical locations and integration/erection on slipway at MDL. 
  • The  ship is expected to be delivered by August 2025. 
  • The vessel is designed by ‘Bureau of Naval Design’ of the Indian Navy and the MDL had undertaken the detailed design and construction of the ship.

Key Features of Taragiri:

  • Indigenously designed Taragiri will have state-of-the-art weapons, sensors, an advanced action information system, an integrated platform management system, world class modular living spaces and a sophisticated power distribution system.
    • The ships are propelled by two gas turbines and 2 main diesel engines which are designed to achieve a speed of over 28 knots. 
  • It will be fitted with a supersonic surface-to-surface missile system.
  • Ship’s air defence capability is designed to counter the threat of the enemy aircraft.
  • Indigenously developed triple tube light weight torpedo launchers and rocket launchers will add more power to the ship’s anti-submarine capability. 

Project 17A:

  • Project 17A  was designed to launch a series of guided-missile frigates, which will further strengthen the marine defence system of the country. 
  • The first ship of Project 17A, Nilgiri, was launched on September 28, 2019, and is expected to begin sea trials in 2024. 
  • The estimated cost of Project 17A is around ₹25,700 crore. 
  • The second ship of P17A class Udaygiri was launched on May 17 2022.

G. Tidbits

1. Asia Cup

  • Sri Lanka beat Pakistan to win their sixth Asia Cup title.
  • The Asian Cricket Council Asia Cup is a men’s One Day International and Twenty20 International cricket tournament in 1983 when the Asian Cricket Council was founded as a measure to promote goodwill between Asian countries. 
  • It was originally scheduled to be held every two years. 
  • The Asia Cup is the only continental championship in cricket and the winning team becomes the champions of Asia. 
  • It alternates every 2-years between ODI and T20I formats.
  • The tournament was moved out of Sri Lanka to UAE because of the ongoing political and economical crisis.
  • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Hongkong and Afghanistan participated in the 2022 edition.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which amongst the following statements is the best description of Project 17A? 
(Level-Difficult)
  1. The Project intends to build six diesel-electric attack submarines of the Kalvari class.
  2. The Project involves the development of seven advanced guided-missile frigates.
  3. It is a Project to procure a fleet of light tanks for deployment in high-altitude areas in eastern Ladakh
  4. Under the Project a series of eleven offshore patrol vessels are being built by Goa Shipyard Limited for the Indian Coast Guard.
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation: 

  • Project 17A was designed to launch a series of guided-missile frigates to strengthen the marine defence system of the country. 
  • Taragiri, the third stealth frigate of Project 17A, was launched recently.
  • The first ship of Project 17A, Nilgiri, was launched on September 28, 2019, and is expected to begin sea trials in 2024. 
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to eligibility criteria for 
prospectiveadoptive parents: (Level-Difficult)
  1. A single female/male can adopt a child of any gender
  2. The age criteria for prospective adoptive parents shall not be applicable in case of relative adoptions and adoption by step-parent.
  3. Couples with three or more children shall not be considered for adoption under all circumstances

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 2 and 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is incorrect, Any prospective adoptive parents, irrespective of his marital status and whether or not he has biological son or daughter, can adopt a child subject to following, namely,
    • the consent of both the spouses for the adoption shall be required, in case of a married couple;
    • a single female can adopt a child of any gender;
    • a single male shall not be eligible to adopt a girl child;
  • Statement 02 is correct, The age of prospective adoptive parents, as on the date of registration, shall be counted for deciding the eligibility.
    • In case of a couple, the composite age of the prospective adoptive parents shall be counted.
    • The minimum age difference between the child and either of the prospective adoptive parents shall not be less than twenty-five years.
    • The age criteria for prospective adoptive parents shall not be applicable in case of relative adoptions and adoption by step-parent.
  • Statement 03 is incorrect, Couples with three or more children shall not be considered for adoption except in case of special need children , hard to place children and in case of relative adoption and adoption by step-parent.
Q3. Which of the following statements with respect to Serious Fraud Investigation 
Office (SFIO) is/are correct? (Level-Medium)
  1. If any case has been assigned by the Central Government to the SFIO for investigation under Companies Act, 2013 no other investigating agency of the Central Government or any State Government can proceed with investigation in such cases.
  2. SFIO does not have the powers to arrest people for violations of companies law

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is correct, SFIO starts an investigation only after receiving an order from the Union government in this respect and it cannot take up cases on their own initiative.
    • Once a case has been assigned by the Central Government to the SFIO for investigation under the Indian  Companies Act, 2013 no other investigating agency of the Central Government or any State Government can commence the investigation in such cases. 
    • In case any such investigation has already been initiated, it cannot be proceeded further with, and the concerned agency has to transfer the relevant documents and records in respect of such offences to the Serious Fraud Investigation Office.
  • Statement 02 is incorrect, SFIO have the powers to arrest people for violations of companies law

Read more on Serious Fraud Investigation Office

Q4. MAARG Portal recently seen in news (Level-Medium)
  1. Facilitates numerous services for the companies and LLPs, starting from incorporation of a company/LLP to closure of a company/LLP.
  2. Helps students seeking Education Loan.
  3. Provides a one-stop mentorship platform to facilitate mentorship for start-ups across diverse sectors, functions, stages, geographies, and backgrounds.
  4. Facilitates a single window solution to the farmers and stakeholders to disseminate the information about the Seed
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • The MAARG Portal by Startup India is a one-stop mentorship platform to facilitate mentorship for startups across diverse sectors, functions, stages, geographies, and backgrounds. 
  • Startups can connect with academicians, industry experts, successful founders, seasoned investors, and others to get personalised advice on growth strategy, seek clarity, and get practical advice.
  • All Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade recognized startups, from all sectors and stages of the startup lifecycle, are eligible to apply for mentorship on the platform all year-round.
Q5. With reference to the writs issued by the Courts in India, consider the 
following Statements: (Level-Medium) (UPSC CSE-2022)
  1. Mandamus will not lie against a private organisation unless it is entrusted with a public duty.
  2. Mandamus will not lie against a Company even though it may be a Government Company.
  3. Any public minded person can be a petitioner to move the Court to obtain the writ of Quo Warranto.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is correct, Writ of Mandamus is a command issued by the court to a public official asking him to perform his official duties that he has failed or refused to perform. It won’t be granted against private individuals and companies that have no public duty to perform.
  • Statement 02 is incorrect, it can also be issued against any public body, a corporation, an inferior court, a tribunal, or a government.
  • Statement 03 is correct, Quo Warranto is issued by the court to enquire into the legality of the claim of a person to a public office. Hence, it prevents illegal usurpation of public office by a person. 
    • Unlike the other writs, this can be sought by any interested person and not necessarily by the aggrieved person.

Read more on Types of Writs in India

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 12 Sep 2022:- Download PDF Here

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