26 Sep 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Quote for the day Set 5 11

CNA 26 Sep 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
GEOGRAPHY
1. Shifting monsoon patterns
B. GS 2 Related
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. A call for better work practices
C. GS 3 Related
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
1. Bhopal Gas Tragedy
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Soft power, the new race every country wants to win
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. Mid-day meal-related food poisoning cases at six-year peak
2. India Inc. needs a neurodiverse workplace
GOVERNANCE
1. Over the top
F. Prelims Facts
G. Tidbits
1. Neelakuranji
2. Local Dialects
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category: GEOGRAPHY

1. Shifting monsoon patterns

Syllabus: Climatology-Monsoon

Mains: Impact of varying monsoon patterns

Context: As per India Meteorological Department (IMD), the southwest monsoon began withdrawing from parts of southwest Rajasthan and Kutch recently.

Monsoon distribution in 2022:

  • Monsoon rainfall in India has been surplus by around 7% in 2022 though with extreme inequity. 
  • Rains in Central India were surplus by 20% and in southern India by 25%, with several instances of flooding in Kerala, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. 
  • Large parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha have seen large deficits. 
  • The east and northeast of India have reported a 17% shortfall and the northwest 2%. 
  • This has impacted sowing of the kharif crop. 
  • Paddy planting has been impacted with sown area 5.51% lower than last year. The Centre is expecting a minimum of six-million tonne shortfall in rice production  which is likely to elevate inflation.

What led to excessive rains in southern and central India?

  • Heavy rains in central India and the southern peninsula are due to La Nina.
  • While, El Ninos are linked to reduced rains over India, La Ninas indicate surplus rainfall. 
  • India is witnessing an extended spell of the La Nina, called a ‘triple dip’ La Nina which is a phenomenon lasting across three winter seasons in the northern hemisphere. 
  • This is only the third time since 1950 that a triple dip La Nina has been observed. This, in part, is why for the third year in a row, India is seeing surplus rain in September, a month that usually marks the retreat of the monsoon. 

Changes in monsoon patterns:

  • As per IMD , between 1989 and 2020, five states namely, UP, Bihar, West Bengal, Meghalaya and Nagaland have shown significant decreasing trends in Southwest Monsoon rainfall.
  • A significant increasing trend in the frequency of heavy rainfall days has been observed over Saurashtra and Kutch, southeastern Rajasthan, northern Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and adjoining areas of southwest Odisha, and parts of many other states.
  • Monsoon is surplus in India since 2019 except a slight dip in 2021.
  • The rainfall over the country as a whole, in 2021, was 1% less than normal though rainfall in September was a remarkable 35% above what is usual.
  • Monsoon in 2022 is already in surplus by about 6%.
  • Three years of above-normal rain in four years is unprecedented in more than a century of IMD’s record keeping.

Implications of changing monsoon patterns:

  • Shifting monsoon patterns with deficits in certain regions and increased rainfall in a short period of time resulting in surface runoffs has created acute water shortage in the country.
  • Cycles of droughts and floods have become more common in many parts of India.
  • Poor monsoon rains result in less crop output and necessitates import which increases food shortage and inflation. 
  • Variation in monsoon has also resulted in the incidence of vector borne diseases such as malaria, dengue.

Read more on Climate of India

Nut Graf: Climate change has resulted in erratic monsoon patterns in India. With a warming climate, more moisture will be held in the atmosphere, leading to heavier rainfall, consequently, inter-annual variability of the monsoon will increase in future.Reliable and sustainable prediction of monsoon forecasts is crucial in order to prepare the country for this change.

2. Local Dialects

  • The Bihar government recently decided to set up new academies to promote local dialects — Surjapuri and Bajjika.
  • This will help in protecting indigenous language and culture and have a positive social, cultural and political impact on people speaking these two dialects. 
  • According to the 2011 census, the total number of Surjapuri speaking population in Bihar stood at 18,57,930. Surjapuri language is a mix of Hindi, Maithili and Bangla.
  • As per 2001 census data, about 20 million Bajjika speakers resided in Bihar at that time. 
  • Two academies were to be set up on the lines of eight already existing centres constituted for the promotion of other dialects.

Read more on Policies to protect endangered languages in India

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct with respect to Neelakurinji 
Flower (Strobilanthes kunthiana)? (Level-Difficult)
  1. The flower has no smell, but has medicinal value and is used in treatment of Arthritis.
  2. Some species of Strobilanthes are examples of a mass seeding phenomenon termed as masting, which is also seen in the bamboo species.
  3. The Paliyan tribal people living in Tamil Nadu used it as a reference to calculate their age.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is incorrect,  Neelakurinji Flower has no smell or any medicinal value.
  • Statement 02 is correct,  Some species of Strobilanthes are examples of a mass seeding phenomenon termed as masting. Which can be defined as “synchronous production of seed at long intervals by a population of plants”.
  • Statement 03 is correct,  The Paliyan tribal people living in Tamil Nadu used it as a reference to calculate their age.
Q2. Arrange the following hills from North to South: (Level-Medium)
  1. Javadi Hills
  2. Nilgiri Hills
  3. Anamalai Hills
  4. Cardamom Hills

Options;

  1. 1-2-3-4
  2. 2-1-4-3
  3. 2-3-4-1
  4. 3-2-1-4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation: The correct sequence from North to South is: Javadi hills-Nilgiri Hills-Anamalai hills-Cardamom hills

Q3. Mankading often seen in the news is related to which amongst the following 
Sports? (Level- Medium)
  1. Cricket 
  2. Fencing
  3. Football
  4. Wrestling
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • In Cricket, ‘Mankading’ is  the act of a bowler running out a batter on the non-striker’s end if he/she is backing up and too far ahead of the crease before the ball is delivered. 
  • The act got its name through an action by Indian all-rounder Vinoo Mankad way back during India’s tour of Australia in the 1947-48. 
    • This incident was the first time such an event occured in international cricket. Till date, this act has been performed only a handful number of times.
Q4. Which of the following scripts is/was written from right to left? 
(Level-Difficult)
  1. Gurmukhi
  2. Kharosthi
  3. Shahmukhi
  4. Takri

Options:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 4 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 2, 3 and 4 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Gurmukhi script was developed by the Sikhs in India for their sacred literature. 
    • It was standardised and used by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad (1504–1552).
    • Gurmukhi is written from left to right.
  • Shahmukhi is written from right to left. It is also used as the main alphabet to write Pahari–Pothwari in Azad Kashmir and Jammu and Kashmir. The Shahmukhi alphabet was first used by the Sufi poets of Punjab.
  • The Kharosthi script is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara. It is a sister script of Brahmi and was deciphered by James Princep. It is written from right to left.
  • Takri (also called Tankri)  script  was widely used in several northern princely Indian states from the 16th century.
    •  It was patronised by Dogra rulers of Jammu and Kashmir in the 17th century and employed extensively by them for official purposes, developing several regional variants and coexisting with the Persian script used to write Urdu and the Devanagari script.
    • It is written from left to right.
Q5. With respect to Pallavas, which of the following statements is/are incorrect? 
(Level-Difficult)
  1. Kanchipuram was the capital of the Pallavas
  2. Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram and the Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple at Kanchipuram are famous temples that were constructed during the reign of Pallavas
  3. Mahendravarman took control of Vatapi, the Chalukya capital and assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is correct, The Pallavas ruled south-eastern India from the 3rd through the 9th centuries CE with Kanchipuram as capital. Their empire covered what is today the Tamil Nadu state.
  • Statement 02 is correct, Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram was built  in the reign of Pallava ruler Narasimhavarman II, also known as Rajasimha who reigned from 700 to 728 CE.
    • The Kailasanathar temple, also referred to as the Kailasanatha temple, is a Pallava-era Hindu temple in Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu. Dedicated to Shiva, it is one of the oldest surviving monuments in Kanchipuram. It reflects a Dravidian architecture and was built about 700 CE by Narasimhavarman II with additions by Mahendra III.
  • Statement 03 is incorrect, The Pallava King Narsimhavarman I assumed the title of ‘Vatapikonda’ (Conqueror of Vatapi), when he defeated and killed Pulakesin II (Chalukya King) and captured the Chalukyan capital, Badami/Vatapi in 642 AD.
Q6. Which one of the following has been constituted under the Environment 
(Protection) Act, 1986 ? (Level-Difficult)(PYQ-2022) 
  1. Central Water Commission
  2. Central Ground Water Board
  3. Central Ground Water Authority
  4. National Water Development Agency
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: Central Ground Water Authority was constituted under Section 3 (3) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to regulate and control development and management of groundwater resources in the country.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Critically evaluate the draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022. (10 Marks, 150 Words) (GS-2; Governance)
  2. Explain how states are increasingly using sports mega-events as part of their ‘soft power’ strategies. (10 Marks, 150 Words) (GS-2 ; International Relations)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 26 Sep 2022:- Download PDF Here

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