UPSC Mains Exam: Comparison of Constitutions

Polity is a significant topic for UPSC IAS Exam. In the UPSC IAS Prelims examination aspirants have to deal with Indian Polity. But in Civil services Mains Examination aspirants have to tackle questions regarding world polity such as the different kinds of constitutions, etc. Polity mainly deals with administration and governance. Without having a thorough knowledge of this subject, one cannot be successful in UPSC IAS exam as well as in his civil services career. It is essential to know the salient features as well as a comparison of different Constitutions.

India is considered as the largest democracy in the world. It has a written constitution which is rigid and flexible in its nature. The architects of our country have borrowed several concepts and ideas from other constitutions such that Ireland, Australia, USA, UK, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan.

In the UPSC Mains exam, they have asked questions about the different constitutions in the world. Here we are giving a summary of the comparison of various constitutions.

Features of Constitution

India

USA

UK

France

Germany

Russia

Japan

Written/
unwritten

Written

Written

Unwritten

Written

 

Written

Flexible/
Rigid

Both

Rigid

Flexible

Rigid

Rigid

Rigid

Rigid

Unitary/ Federal

Federal with unitary bias

Federal

Unitary

Unitary

Federal

Federal

Unitary

Parliamentary/ Presidential Democracy

Parliamentary Democracy

Presidential Democracy

Parliamentary Democracy

Quasi Presidential and Quasi Prime ministerial

Parliamentary Republic

Semi Presidential

Parliamentary Democracy

Sovereignty of Parliament

Supremacy of Constitution

Supremacy of Constitution

Supremacy of Parliament

Parliament with limited power

   

Supremacy of Constitution

Republic/ Monarch/ Military

Republic

Republic

Constitutional monarchy

Republic

Republic

Republic

Constitutional monarchy

President

Ceremonial head

Executive

 

Executive

Ceremonial

Executive

 

Dual
citizenship

Not recognised

Recognised

Recognised

Recognised

Not recognised

Recognised

Not recognised

Fundamental Rights

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Due process of Law/Procedure established of law

Procedure established by law

Due process of Law

Rule  of Law

     

Procedure established by law

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