UPSC Mains Exam: Comparison of Constitutions

Polity is a significant topic for UPSC IAS Exam. In the UPSC IAS Prelims examination aspirants have to deal with Indian Polity. But in Civil services Mains Examination aspirants have to tackle questions regarding world polity such as the different kinds of constitutions, etc. Polity mainly deals with administration and governance. Without having a thorough knowledge of this subject, one cannot be successful in UPSC IAS exam as well as in his civil services career. It is essential to know the salient features as well as a comparison of different Constitutions.

Aspirants would find this article very helpful while preparing for the UPSC 2021.

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India is considered as the largest democracy in the world. It has a written constitution which is rigid and flexible in its nature. The architects of our country have borrowed several concepts and ideas from other constitutions such that Ireland, Australia, USA, UK, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan.

In the UPSC Mains exam, they have asked questions about the different constitutions in the world. Here we are giving a summary of the comparison of various constitutions.

Features of Constitution India USA UK France Germany Russia Japan
Written Written Unwritten Written   Written
Both Rigid Flexible Rigid Rigid Rigid Rigid
Unitary/ Federal Federal with unitary bias Federal Unitary Unitary Federal Federal Unitary
Parliamentary/ Presidential Democracy Parliamentary Democracy Presidential Democracy Parliamentary Democracy Quasi Presidential and Quasi Prime ministerial Parliamentary Republic Semi Presidential Parliamentary Democracy
Sovereignty of Parliament Supremacy of Constitution Supremacy of Constitution Supremacy of Parliament Parliament with limited power     Supremacy of Constitution
Republic/ Monarch/ Military Republic Republic Constitutional monarchy Republic Republic Republic Constitutional monarchy
President Ceremonial head Executive   Executive Ceremonial Executive  
Not recognised Recognised Recognised Recognised Not recognised Recognised Not recognised
Fundamental Rights Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Due process of Law/Procedure established of law Procedure established by law Due process of Law Rule  of Law       Procedure established by law

UPSC exam-related preparation materials will be found through the links given below.

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