# NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 1

## NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science Chemical Reactions and Equations

For students of class 10, who are preparing to give their best performance for their board exam, it is important for them to NCERT Solutions for class 10 Science chapter 1. NCERT Solutions for class 10 Science chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations is intended to help students to get accustomed to how a chemical reaction can be represented as an equation which will help us to understand the reaction effectively. Thus here we have provided NCERT Solutions for class 10 Science chapter 1 pdf to help you learn the subject more effectively.

Questions:

Q1) Why should a Magnesium ribbon be cleaned before burning in air?

Soln: When left unused, the outer layer of Magnesium metal reacts with the atmospheric oxygen and forms Magnesium Oxide (MgO) layer which is a very stable compound thus preventing further reactions with Oxygen. It is therefore necessary to clean the ribbon by brushing it to remove the layer of MgO so that the reaction becomes feasible with the atmospheric oxygen.

Q2) Write a balanced equations for the following chemical reactions.

i) Hydrogen + Chloride —-> Hydrogen chloride

ii) Barium chloride + Aluminium Sulphate —-> Barium sulphate + Aluminum chloride

iii) Sodium + Water —-> Sodium hydroxide + Hydrogen

Soln:

i) H2+Cl22HCl$H_{2}+Cl_{2}\rightarrow 2HCl$

ii) 3BaCl2+Al2(SO4)32AlCl3+3BaSO4$3BaCl_{2} +Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}\rightarrow 2AlCl_{3} + 3BaSO_{4}$

iii) 2Na+2H2O2NaOH+H2$2Na + 2H_{2}O \rightarrow 2NaOH + H_{2}$

Q3) Write a balanced chemical equation with state symbols for the following reactions

i) Solutions of Barium chloride and Sodium sulfate in water react to give insoluble Barium sulfate and solution of Sodium chloride.

ii) Sodium hydroxide solution in water reacts with hydrochloric acid solution to produce Sodium chloride solution and water.

Soln:

i) BaCl2+Na2SO4BaSO4+2NaCl$BaCl_{2} + Na_{2}SO_{4} \rightarrow BaSO_{4} + 2NaCl$

ii) NaOH+HClNaCl+H2O$NaOH + HCl \rightarrow NaCl + H_{2}O$

Q4) A solution of a substance ‘X’ is used for whitewashing.

i) Name the substance ‘X’ and write its formula.

ii) Write the reaction of the substance ‘X’ named in (i) above with water.

Soln:

i)The substance ‘X’ which is used in whitewashing is quick lime or Calcium Oxide and its formula is CaO.

ii) CaO+H2OCa(OH)2$CaO + H_{2}O \rightarrow Ca(OH)_{2}$

Q5) Why does the colour of copper sulphate solution change when an iron nail is dipped in it?

Soln:

When an iron nail dipped in the copper sulphate solution, the iron displaces copper from the copper sulphate because iron is more reactive than copper. Therefore the colour of the copper sulphate solution changes. The reaction is :

Fe+CuSO4>FeSO4+Cu$Fe + CuSO_{4} —-> FeSO_{4} + Cu$

Q6) Identify the substances that are oxidized and that are reduced in the following equation.

i) 4Na(s)+O2(g)2Na2O(s)$4Na(s) + O_{2}(g)\rightarrow 2Na_{2}O(s)$

ii) CuO(s)+H2(g)Cu(s)+H2O(l)$CuO(s) + H_{2}(g)\rightarrow Cu(s) + H_{2}O(l)$

Soln:

The Sodium (Na) in the first equation is getting oxidized with the addition of Oxygen (O2) and the Copper (Cu) in the second equation is reduced since the addition of Hydrogen (H2).

Exercise:

Q1) Which of the statements about the reaction below are incorrect?

2PbO(s)+C(s)2Pb(s)+CO2(g)$2PbO(s) + C(s) \rightarrow 2Pb(s) + CO_{2}(g)$

(b) Carbon Dioxide is getting oxidised

(c) Carbon is getting oxidised

(d) Lead oxide is getting reduced

(i) (a) and (b)

(ii) (a) and (c)

(iii) (a), (b) and (c)

(iv) all

Soln:

(i) (a) and (b)

Explanation: (a) because Oxygen is being removed and (b) because the removed oxygen from Lead is added to the elemental Carbon.

Q2) Fe2O3+2AlAl2O3+2Fe$Fe_{2}O_{3} + 2Al \rightarrow Al_{2}O_{3} + 2Fe$

The above reaction is an example of a

1. Combination reaction.
2. Double displacement reaction.
3. Decomposition reaction.
4. Displacement reaction.

Soln:

4. Displacement reaction.

Explanation: The Oxygen from the Ferrous oxide is getting displaced to the Aluminium metal to form Aluminium Oxide.

Q3) What happens when dilute hydrochloric acid is added to iron fillings? Tick the correct answer.

1. Hydrogen gas and Iron chloride are produced.
2. Chlorine gas and Iron hydroxide are produced.
3. No reaction takes place.
4. Iron salt and water are produced.

Soln:

1. Hydrogen gas and Iron chloride are produced.

Explanation: The Chlorine from the Hydrogen chloride is displaced to the Iron fillings undergoing the following reaction.

2HCl+FeFeCl2+H2$2HCl + Fe \rightarrow FeCl_{2} + H_{2}$

Q4) What is a balanced chemical equation? Why should a chemical equation be balanced?

Soln:

A balanced chemical equation is the one in which the number of different atoms on both the sides of the chemical equation that is on the reactant side and the product side of a reaction are equal. The chemical equation needs to be balanced so that it obeys the Law Of Conservation of Mass. Balancing of chemical equation has no defined method and is purely a trial and error attempt.

Q5) Translate the following statements into chemical equations and balance them.

(a) Hydrogen gas combines with nitrogen to form ammonia.

(b) Hydrogen sulphide gas burns in air to give water and sulphur dioxide.

(c) Barium chloride reacts with aluminium sulphate to give Aluminium chloride and a precipitate of barium sulphate.

(d) Potassium metal reacts with water to give potassium hydroxide and Hydrogen gas.

Soln:

(a) Unbalanced: H2+N2NH3$H_{2} + N_{2} \rightarrow NH_{3}$

Balanced: 3H2+N22NH3$3H_{2}+N_{2}\rightarrow 2NH_{3}$

(b) Unbalanced: H2S+O2H2O+SO2$H_{2}S + O_{2} \rightarrow H_{2}O + SO_{2}$

Balanced: 2H2S+3O22H2O+2SO2$2H_{2}S + 3O_{2} \rightarrow 2H_{2}O + 2SO_{2}$

(c)  Unbalanced: BaCl2+Al2(SO4)3AlCl3+BaSO4$BaCl_{2} + Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} \rightarrow AlCl_{3} + BaSO_{4}$

Balanced: 3BaCl2+Al2(SO4)32AlCl3+3BaSO4$3BaCl_{2} + Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} \rightarrow 2AlCl_{3} + 3BaSO_{4}$

(d) Unbalanced:K+H2OKOH+H2$K + H_{2}O \rightarrow KOH + H_{2}$

Balanced:  2K+2H2O2KOH+H2$2K + 2H_{2}O \rightarrow 2KOH + H_{2}$

Q6) Balance the following chemical equations.

1. HNO3+Ca(OH)2Ca(NO3)2+H2O$HNO_{3} + Ca(OH)_{2} \rightarrow Ca(NO_{3})_{2} +H_{2}O$
2. NaOH+H2SO4Na2SO4+H2O$NaOH + H_{2}SO_{4} \rightarrow Na_{2}SO_{4} + H_{2}O$
3. NaCl+AgNO3AgCl+NaNO3$NaCl + AgNO_{3} \rightarrow AgCl + NaNO_{3}$
4. BaCl2+H2SO4BaSO4+HCl$BaCl_{2} + H_{2}SO_{4} \rightarrow BaSO_{4} + HCl$

Soln:

1. 2HNO3+2Ca(OH)22Ca(NO3)2+2H2O$2HNO_{3} + 2Ca(OH)_{2} \rightarrow 2Ca(NO_{3})_{2} +2H_{2}O$
2. 6NaOH+3H2SO4H2SO4+6H2O$6NaOH + 3H_{2}SO_{4} \rightarrow H_{2}SO_{4} + 6H_{2}O$
3. NaCl+AgNO3AgCl+NaNO3$NaCl + AgNO_{3} \rightarrow AgCl + NaNO_{3}$
4. BaCl2+H2SO4BaSO4+2HCl$BaCl_{2} + H_{2}SO_{4} \rightarrow BaSO_{4} + 2HCl$

Q7) Write the balanced chemical equation for the following reactions.

1. Calcium hydroxide + Carbon dioxide —-> Calcium carbonate + Water
2. Zinc + Silver nitrate —-> Zinc nitrate + Silver
3. Aluminium + Copper chloride —-> Aluminium chloride + Copper
4. Barium chloride + Potassium sulphate —-> Barium sulphate + Potassium chloride

Soln:

1. 2Ca(OH)2+2CO22CaCO3+2H2O$2Ca(OH)_{2} + 2CO_{2} \rightarrow 2CaCO_{3} + 2H_{2}O$
2. Zn+2AgNO3Zn(NO3)2+2Ag$Zn + 2AgNO_{3} \rightarrow Zn(NO_{3})_{2} + 2Ag$
3. 2Al+3CuCl32AlCl3+3Cu$2Al + 3CuCl_{3} \rightarrow 2AlCl_{3} + 3Cu$
4. BaCl2+K2SO4BaSO4+2KCl$BaCl_{2} + K_{2}SO_{4} \rightarrow BaSO_{4} + 2KCl$

Q8) Write a balanced chemical equation for the following and identify the type of reaction of each case

1. KBr+BaI2KI+BaBr2$KBr + BaI_{2} \rightarrow KI + BaBr_{2}$
2. ZnCO3ZnO+CO2$ZnCO_{3} \rightarrow ZnO + CO_{2}$
3. H2+ClHCl$H_{2} + Cl \rightarrow HCl$
4. Mg+HClMgCl2+H2$Mg + HCl \rightarrow MgCl_{2} + H_{2}$

Soln:

1. 2KBr+BaI22KI+BaBr2$2KBr + BaI_{2} \rightarrow 2KI + BaBr_{2}$ (Double Displacement Reaction)
2. ZnCO3ZnO+CO2$ZnCO_{3} \rightarrow ZnO + CO_{2}$ (Decomposition Reaction)
3. H2+Cl2HCl$H_{2} + Cl \rightarrow 2HCl$  (Combination Reaction)
4. Mg+2HClMgCl2+H2$Mg +2HCl \rightarrow MgCl_{2} + H_{2}$ (Displacement Reaction)

Q9) What is meant by exothermic and endothermic reactions? Give examples.

Soln:

An endothermic reaction occurs when energy is absorbed from the surroundings in the form of heat.(Example: Photosynthesis, melting of ice,evaporation). Conversely, an exothermic reaction is one in which energy is released from the system into the surroundings.(Example: Explosions, concrete setting, nuclear fission and fusion).

Q10) Why is respiration considered to be an exothermic reaction?

Soln:

For the survival of life we require energy.We obtain this energy from the food we eat. The food molecules, through the process of digestion is broken down into simpler molecule like glucose. These substances come in contact with the Oxygen present in our body cells to form Carbon dioxide and water along with a certain amount of energy(Respiration process). Since the energy is in the form of heat(that maintains our body temperature) the respiration is considered to be an exothermic reaction.The reaction taking place is:

C6H12O6+6O26CO2+6H2O+Energy$C_{6}H_{12}O_{6} + 6O_{2} \rightarrow 6CO_{2} + 6H_{2}O + Energy$

Q11) Why are decomposition reactions called the opposite of Combination reactions? Write equations for decomposition reactions.

Soln:

Combination reaction is said to be the reaction between two or more molecules to form a larger molecule whereas the decomposition reaction is defined as the splitting of a larger molecules into two or more smaller molecules. That essentially explains that the decomposition reaction is the opposite of the combination reaction.

In most of the cases the decomposition reaction is endothermic since heat from the surrounding or induced heat is used to break the bonds of the larger molecule. Few examples of decomposition reactions are:

• ZnCO3ZnO+CO2$ZnCO_{3} \rightarrow ZnO + CO_{2}$
• CaCO3+EnergyCaO+CO2$CaCO_{3} + Energy \rightarrow CaO + CO_{2}$
• 2HgO2Hg+O2$2HgO \rightarrow 2Hg + O_{2}$

Q12) Write one equation each for decomposition reactions in which energy is supplied in the form of heat, light or electricity.

Soln:

(a) Thermal decomposition reaction (Thermolysis)

Decomposition of potassium chlorate: When heated strongly, potassium chlorate decomposes into potassium chloride and oxygen. This reaction is used for the preparation of oxygen.

2KClO3+Heat2KCl+3O2$2KClO_{3}+ Heat \rightarrow 2KCl + 3O_{2}$

(b) Electrolytic decomposition reaction (Electrolysis)

Decomposition of sodium chloride: On passing electricity through molten sodium chloride, it decomposes into sodium and chlorine.

2NaClelectricity2Na+Cl2$2NaCl \overset{electricity}{\rightarrow} 2Na + Cl_{2}$

(c) Photodecomposition reaction (Photolysis)

Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide: In the presence of light, hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen

2H2O2light2H2O+O2$2H_{2}O_{2} \overset{light}{\rightarrow} 2H_{2}O + O_{2}$

Q13) What is the difference between displacement and double displacement reactions? Write relevant equations for the above.

Soln:

• A displacement reaction is the one when a more reactive substance displaces a less reactive one from its salt solution whereas a double displacement reaction is the one where a mutual exchange of ions happens between two compounds.
• In a displacement reaction only a single displacement takes place whereas in the double displacement reaction, as the name suggests two displacement takes place between the molecules.
• Example:
• Displacement reaction
Mg+2HClMgCl2+H2$Mg +2HCl \rightarrow MgCl_{2} + H_{2}$
• Double displacement reaction
2KBr+BaI22KI+BaBr2$2KBr + BaI_{2} \rightarrow 2KI + BaBr_{2}$

Q14) In the refining of Silver, the recovery of silver from Silver nitrate solution involves displacement reaction by Copper metal. Write down the reaction involved.

Soln:

Cu(s)+2AgNO3(aq)Cu(NO3)2(aq)+2Ag(s)$Cu(s) + 2AgNO_{3}(aq) \rightarrow Cu(NO_{3})_{2}(aq) + 2Ag(s)$

Q15) What do you mean by precipitation reaction? Explain by giving examples.

Soln:

When two solutions containing soluble salts are combined, a double displacement reaction takes place in which the ions are exchanged between the compounds. When one of such compound formed is in solid form (that is insoluble in aqua) then it settles down at the bottom of the container. This solid is known as the precipitate and the respective reaction is termed as the precipitation reaction. Few examples of precipitation reactions are:

• CdSO4(aq)+K2S(aq)CdS(s)+K2SO4(aq)$CdSO_{4}(aq)+K_{2}S(aq)\rightarrow CdS(s)+K_{2}SO_{4}(aq)$
• 2NaOH(aq)+MgCl2(aq)2NaCl(aq)+Mg(OH)2(s)$2NaOH(aq)+MgCl_{2}(aq)\rightarrow2NaCl(aq)+Mg(OH)_{2}(s)$

Q16) Explain the following in terms of gain of oxygen with two examples each.

(a) Oxidation

(b) Reduction

Soln:

(a) In a chemical reaction, when the oxygen is added to the element to form its respective oxide it is the element being oxidised. Example:

4Na(s)+O2(g)2Na2O(s)$4Na(s) + O_{2}(g) \rightarrow 2Na_{2}O(s)$ H2S+O2H2O+SO2$H_{2}S + O_{2} \rightarrow H_{2}O + SO_{2}$

(b) In a chemical reaction, when the oxygen is being removed from the compound then it is said to be reduced. Example:

CuO(s)+H2(g)Cu(s)+H2O(l)$CuO(s) + H_{2}(g) \rightarrow Cu(s) + H_{2}O(l)$ 2HgO2Hg+O2$2HgO \rightarrow 2Hg + O_{2}$

Q17) A shiny brown coloured element ‘X’ on heating in air becomes black in colour. Name the element ‘X’ and the black coloured compound formed.

Soln:

The shiny brown coloured element is the Copper metal(Cu). When the metal is heated in air, it reacts with the atmospheric oxygen to form copper oxide. Hence the black coloured compound is the copper oxide.

2Cu(s)+O2(g)2CuO(s)$2Cu(s) + O_{2}(g) \rightarrow 2CuO(s)$

Q18) Why do we apply paint on iron articles?

Soln:

Iron articles are painted to prevent them from rusting. When left unpainted, the metal surface comes in contact with the atmospheric oxygen and in the presence of moisture it from Iron(III) oxide. But if painted the surface does not come in contact with moisture and air thus preventing Rusting.

Q19) Oil and Fat containing food items are flushed with Nitrogen. Why?

Soln:

The main purpose of flushing Nitrogen into food packets that contain oil and fat items is to prevent Rancidity which occurs when the oil or fat reacts with the oxygen letting out an unpleasant smell and taste. Therefore by flushing Nitrogen, an unreactive surrounding is created thus preventing rancidity.

Q20) Explain the following terms with one example each.

(a) Corrosion

(b) Rancidity

Soln:

(a) Corrosion is a process where a refined metal is oxidised by the atmospheric oxygen to form a more stable compound such as oxides. The metal gradually degrades during the corrosion process. Rusting of iron is an good example of corrosion where the iron is converted to Iron oxide. Millions of dollars are spent annually to in preventing rusting from bridges and other monuments.

(b) The condition produced by the aerial oxidation of the oil and fat present in the food material that produces an unpleasant taste and smell. The rancidity is retarded when the food is kept inside the refrigerator since the low temperature does not promote the oxidation reaction.

 More NCERT Solutions NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity And Evolution NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis In Higher Plants NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 Excretory Products And Their Elimination NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 Classification Of Elements And Periodicity NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 7 Equilibrium