Buddhism is a religion and philosophy grounded on the lessons of the Buddha, who lived in between 563 and 483 BCE. Buddhism spread all over the ancient Indian sub-continent and continued to spread into Southeast, East Asia, Central, and Eastern Europe. Believers of Buddhism are called Buddhists.
Buddhist ethics is underpropped by the principles of non-violence and self-control. In the antiquity of Buddhism, six Buddhist councils were summoned. These councils were held under the patronage of various rulers and chaired by different monks. The agenda of these councils were to conserve the chastity and spread Buddhism.
Here we are giving the details about all the Buddhist council which is essential for UPSC IAS Prelims examination.
First Buddhist Council- 5th century BC
- 400 BC
- There First Buddhist council was held at Sattapanni caves Rajgriha
- It was under the patronage of King Ajatashatru
- 1st Buddhist Council was presided by Monk Mahakasyapa
- The Agenda of First Buddhist council was to reserve the teachings (sutra) of Buddha and the monastic discipline or guidelines (Vinaya).
- It was held right after the death of Buddha.
- Suttas and Vinaya were recited by Ananda, and Upali respectively
- Abhidhamma Pitaka was also recited.
Second Buddhist Council- 383 BC
- 383 BC
- The second Buddhist council was held at Vaishali
- It was under the patronage of Kalasoka
- 2nd Buddhist Council was presided by Sabakami
- The Agenda of second Buddhist council was to settle the disagreements of different subdivisions.
- Many people regard this council as historical. The council rejected the Mahasangikas.
Third Buddhist Council–250 BC
- 250 BC
- The third Buddhist council was held at Patliputra
- It was under the patronage of Ashoka
- 3rd Buddhist Council was presided by Moggaliputta Tissa
- The Agenda of third Buddhist council was to analyze the different schools of Buddhism and to purify them.
- Ashoka sent several groups to different parts of countries to spread the Buddhism.
Fourth Buddhist Council-78 AD
- 78 AD
- The fourth Buddhist council was held at Kashmir
- It was under the patronage of Kanishka
- 4th Buddhist Council was presided by Vasumitra and Asvaghosha
- The Agenda of fourth Buddhist council was to reserve and remedy of various conflict
- From this council division of Buddhism twigs into Hinayana and Mahayana.
Fifth Buddhist Council-1871
- The fifth Buddhist council was held at Myanmar
- It was under the patronage of King Mindon
- 5th Buddhist Council was presided by Jagarabhivamsa, Narindabhidhaja, and Sumangalasami
- The Agenda of fifth Buddhist council was to recite all the Buddhist learning and scrutinize them in minuscule details
- This council is largely not recognized outside of Myanmar
Sixth Buddhist Council- 1954
- The fifth Buddhist council was held at Kaba Aye in Yangon, Burma
- It was under the patronage of Prime Minister U. Nu
- 6th Buddhist Council was presided by Mahasi Sayadaw and Bhadanta Vicittasarabhivamsa.
- The Agenda of fifth Buddhist council was to uphold and preserve the authentic Dhamma and Vinaya
- A special Maha Passana Guha was built which was like to the Guha where the first Buddhist council was created.