Shyam Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM)

The National Rurban Mission (NRuM) follows the vision of “Development of a cluster of villages that preserve and nurture the essence of rural community life with a focus on equity and inclusiveness without compromising with the facilities perceived to be essentially urban in nature, thus creating a cluster of “Rurban Villages”.

The scheme was launched on February 21, 2016, by Prime Minister Narendra Modi with the vision to deliver catalytic interventions to rural areas on the threshold of growth. Also, get a comprehensive List of Government Schemes in India, at the linked article. 

In this article, we shall learn more about the objectives of the mission along with its impact on the rurban development over the years. IAS Exam aspirants must carefully go through the information in this article as questions based on the same may be asked in the upcoming Civil Services Exam. 

Shyam Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission [UPSC Notes]:-Download PDF Here

About the Rurban Mission

  • The scheme was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) in 2016
  • The main aim of the mission is to bridge the gap between rural and urban population by providing equal facilities, technology, social-economic development 
  • The objective of the National Rurban Mission (NRuM) is to stimulate local economic development, enhance basic services, and create well planned Rurban clusters
  • In terms of SPMRM, Rurban areas refer to a cluster of 15-20 villages having about 30 to 40 lakh population
  • The mission is a centrally sponsored scheme. The Mission has two fund streams: 
    • Convergence through various Central sector schemes, centrally sponsored schemes, State sector/ sponsored schemes/ programmes, CSR funds
    • Critical Gap Funds (CGF)
  • From the time of its inception, the Mission aims at the development of 300 Rurban clusters in five years
  • These clusters would be strengthened with the required amenities, for which it is proposed that resources be mobilized through the convergence of various schemes of the Government, over and above which a Critical Gap Funding (CGF) would be provided under this Mission, for focused development of these clusters
  • SPMRM is in line with the Provision of Urban Amenities to Rural Areas (PURA), a project that was launched in 2003

Know the Difference between Rural and Urban India at the linked article. 

What is Rurban?

Rurban clusters are identified across the country’s rural areas showing increasing signs of urbanization – i.e. increase in population density, high levels of non-farm employment, presence of growing economic activities and other socioeconomic parameters.

SPMRM – A Brief Background

  • As per Census of India statistics, the rural population in India, stands at 833 million, constituting almost 68% of the total population. Further, the rural population has shown a growth of 12% during the 2001-2011 period and there has been an increase in the absolute number of villages by 2279 units, during the same period
  • Large parts of rural areas in the country are not stand-alone settlements but part of a cluster of settlements, which are relatively proximate to each other. These clusters have a potential for social and economic growth and development
  • The success of this mission would lead to the holistic development of the region and encourage integrated and inclusive rural development

UPSC aspirants can also read in detail about Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act at the MGNREGA page. 

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Objectives of SPMRM

  • In terms of infrastructure, it focuses on providing:
    • 24×7 water supply
    • Solid and Liquid Waste Management facilities at the household and cluster level
    • Provision of Inter and Intra village roads within the cluster
    • Installation of street lights
    • Transport facilities using green technologies
  • Economic amenities in a cluster comprise various thematic areas in the sectors of Agri Services and Processing, Tourism, and Skill Development to promote Small and Medium Scale Enterprises
  • Other important components of development, including:
    • Sanitation
    • Access to Village Streets With Drains
    • Agri-Services Processing and Allied Activities
    • Education and Digital Literacy
    • Sports and Social Infrastructure
    • Healthy Environment

Know more about Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Policies at the linked article.

Progress under the Rurban Scheme

  • Under the mission 300 Rurban clusters are envisaged to be developed in a timebound manner. Of these 296 clusters have been selected and the number of Integrated Cluster Action Plans (ICAPs) approved are 288 and Detailed Project Reports of 240 have been approved
  • As of February 2020, total Central Share funds released till date is Rs. 1,842.97 crores
  • Total investment approved in 288 ICAPs is Rs.28,075 crores with convergence being Rs.21,194 crores and Rs. 6,882crores. Of this, total expenditure, as of November 30, 2019, was Rs.6,689 crores of which Rs. 5,619 crores formed convergence and Rs. 1,071 crore under CGF. The CGF Funds release is expected to cross the target of Rs. 1,200 crore by March 31, 2020
  • NITI Aayog has proposed a new and extended programme for over 1,000 clusters in the next 3 years
  • The mission is also seeking an extension of 2 years to complete all the identified works

Shyam Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission [UPSC Notes]:-Download PDF Here

Get the updated UPSC Syllabus for the upcoming IAS Exam at the linked article and start your preparation accordingly. 

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