28 July 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 28th July 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
ART AND CULTURE
1. Dholavira in Gujarat on UNESCO World Heritage list
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Biden, Kadhimi seal deal to end U.S. combat mission in Iraq
C. GS 3 Related
ECONOMY
1. No landless farmers in new database
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
1. Let’s make room for the river
EDUCATION
1. Weighing down the private unaided college teacher
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Needed: an anti-trafficking law
F. Prelims Facts
1. Navy joins exercise along east African coast
2. Plan for adjournment motion
G. Tidbits
1. ‘21.5 mn lost jobs in tourism sector’
2. SC mulls PM CARES Fund for orphans
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

Category: EDUCATION

1. Weighing down the private unaided college teacher

Context:

  • A recent survey conducted in Tamil Nadu on the status of the teachers in private unaided colleges and to understand the impact of the pandemic on their working and living conditions.

Details:

  • The findings of the survey paint a very sorry state of the teachers working in private unaided colleges.

Pre-pandemic phase:

  • Private-unaided college teachers have received below-par salaries and have also lacked social security benefits like Employee State Insurance and paid leave.

Pandemic phase:

  • As per the survey, the working conditions and welfare of teachers have only worsened in the pandemic.
  • There have been large scale layoffs and pay cuts during the novel coronavirus pandemic. Such teachers have been forced to take up odd jobs.
  • The teachers in private-unaided colleges have also faced immense difficulty in online teaching due to lack of Internet, lack of room/space, and lack of quality equipment. Some respondents have even reported experiencing high emotional distress during this period linked to online teaching work.

Concerns:

  • There has been increasing privatization of the higher education sector in India.
    • There has been an enormous growth of private higher educational institutions in India. According to the All-India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE), 2020 report, at the all India level, 65% of the total colleges are private unaided colleges.
  • The sorry state of teachers in private-unaided colleges will invariably have an impact on the quality of higher education in India.

Recommendations:

  • The article makes the following recommendations to help alleviate the condition of teachers in private unaided colleges.
    • Colleges should be made to pay complete arrears salary to the teachers.
    • Teachers laid off during the pandemic must be reinstated.
    • The teachers must be reimbursed for the expenditure incurred by them for online teaching during the pandemic.
    • The deplorable condition of private-unaided college teachers can be attributed to the absence of any state regulation of private higher educational institutions on matters relating to the working conditions of teachers and other employees. In this regard, the existing laws need to be reviewed and amended to equip monitoring agencies to safeguard the welfare of teachers in unaided private colleges.

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. Needed: an anti-trafficking law

Background:

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2021:

  • The Government of India has proposed the Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2021.
  • The Bill aims to tackle all aspects of trafficking including the social and economic causes of the crime, punishment to traffickers, and the protection and rehabilitation of survivors.

For detailed information on this topic refer to the following article:

UPSC Comprehensive News Analysis of 19th July 202

Concerns related to human trafficking:

  • Human trafficking amounts to gross violation of the human rights of those trafficked.
  • There has been a rapid increase in trafficking during the pandemic. The prolonged school closures and loss of family livelihood are being used by the traffickers to increase the human trafficking of thousands of women and children from the poorest sections of our society.
  • Apart from being a crime in itself, human trafficking is also the propeller of several other crimes. It creates a parallel black economy that fuels child labour, child marriage, prostitution, bonded labour, forced beggary, drug-related crimes, corruption, terrorism and other illicit businesses.

Way forward:

  • The article written by Nobel Laureate and child rights activist Kailash Satyarthi argues that the economic growth and progress of India would remain meaningless if the scourge of human trafficking is allowed to continue.
  • He calls upon the Parliament to urgently pass a strong anti-trafficking law to end the menace of human trafficking.
  • The article commends the provisions in the proposed Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2021, but calls for necessary checks and balances against potential misuse of power by agencies, periodic reviews of the law, and adequate allocation of resources for effective implementation.

Additional information:

  • Human trafficking is the only offence punishable under the Constitution of India itself, besides the practice of untouchability.
    • Article 23(1) of the Indian Constitution explicitly prohibits and criminalizes human trafficking.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Navy joins exercise along east African coast

Exercise Cutlass Express:

  • The exercise is an annual maritime exercise conducted to promote national and regional maritime security and maritime law enforcement capacity in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean.

Context:

  • Indian Naval ship Talwar’s participation in the Exercise Cutlass Express, 2021.

2. Plan for adjournment motion

Adjournment motion:

  • Adjournment motion can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha.
  • The primary object of an adjournment motion is to draw the attention of the House to a recent matter of urgent public importance having serious consequences and with regard to which a motion or a resolution with proper notice will be too late.
  • The adjournment motion is an extraordinary procedure which, if admitted, leads to setting aside the normal business of the House for discussing a definite matter of urgent public importance.
  • The speaker is the final authority to give consent to an adjournment motion.
  • The right to move a motion for an adjournment of the business of the House is subject to the following restrictions:
    • Raise a matter which is definite, factual, urgent and of public importance.
    • Not cover more than one matter.
    • Be restricted to a specific matter of recent occurrence.
    • Not raise a question of privilege.
    • Not revive discussion on a matter that has been discussed in the same session.
    • Not deal with any matter that is under adjudication of court.
    • Not raise any question that can be raised on a distinct motion.

Read more on the Adjournment Motion in the linked article.

Context:

  • The Opposition leaders are planning to move an adjournment motion in the Lok Sabha to discuss the Pegasus issue.

G. Tidbits

1. ‘21.5 mn lost jobs in tourism sector’

  • The tourism industry has been among the hardest hit due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • There has been a significant drop in tourist arrivals (both foreign and domestic) and hence tourism expenditure, during the pandemic.
    • Tourism direct gross value added (TDGVA) has witnessed a high decrease.
    • An estimated 21.5 million people working in the tourism sector lost their jobs during the nine-month period from April 2020-December 2020.

2. SC mulls PM CARES Fund for orphans

  • A report in the Supreme Court notes that over 75,000 children have been orphaned, abandoned or has lost a parent during the COVID-19 pandemic, and cautions that many of them may become victims of human trafficking rackets or descend into crime.

Context:

  • Supreme Court Bench hearing a suo motu case on children impacted by the pandemic.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements with respect to the Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952:
  1. A commission set up under the Act shall have the powers of a civil court while trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure.
  2. Inquiry commissions set up by the central government can make an inquiry into the matters relatable to any of the entries in Union List or Concurrent List only.
  3. If a state has appointed an Inquiry Commission, then the Centre cannot set up a parallel commission on the same subject matter.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • A commission set up under the Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952 shall have the powers of a civil court while trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure.
  • Inquiry commissions set up by the central government can make an inquiry into the matters relatable to any of the entries in Union List, State List or Concurrent List.
  • Inquiry commissions set up by the state government can make an inquiry into the matters relatable to any of the entries in Concurrent List or State List only.
  • If the Centre has appointed an Inquiry Commission, then the state government cannot set up a parallel commission on the same subject matter without the consent of the central government.
  • If a state has appointed an Inquiry Commission, then the Centre can set up a parallel commission on the same subject if it believes that the scope of the inquiry can extend to other states.
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to Dholavira:
  1. It is in the Khadir Island in the Rann of Kutch and is located on the Tropic of Cancer.
  2. Beads, terracotta, gold, ivory have been excavated from the site.
  3. The city demonstrates a sophisticated water management system.
  4. The first actual remains of horses were found in this region.

Which of the above is/are correct statements?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Dholavira, inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage list is in the Khadir Island in the Rann of Kutch and is located on the Tropic of Cancer.
  • Beads, terracotta, gold, ivory have been excavated from the site.
  • The city demonstrates a sophisticated water management system.
  • The first actual remains of horses were found in Surkotada in Gujarat.
Q3. Which among the following is a U.S. Naval Forces Africa (NAVAF) led, all-domain exercise 
in East African coastal regions and the West Indian Ocean?
  1. RIMPAC
  2. Exercise Cutlass Express
  3. Exercise Sea Breeze
  4. Exercise Cobra Gold
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Exercise Cutlass Express is a U.S. Naval Forces Africa led all-domain exercise sponsored by U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM).
  • It is an all-domain exercise in East African coastal regions and the West Indian Ocean.
  • The 2021 edition of the exercise involves the participation of 12 Eastern African countries, US, UK, India and various international organisations like the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Interpol, European Union Naval Force (EUNAVFOR), Critical Maritime Routes Indian Ocean (CRIMARIO) and EUCAP Somalia.
Q4. “Nauka” recently seen in news is:
  1. A space laboratory launched by Russia to be integrated with the International Space Station.
  2. An orbiting infrared observatory that will complement and extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope.
  3. A module on the International Space Station used as a docking port for spacecraft and as a door for cosmonauts to go out on spacewalks, launched by JAXA.
  4. India’s mission to explore the deep ocean with a focus on deep-sea mining and underwater robotics-related technologies.
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Nauka is a space laboratory launched by Russia to be integrated with the International Space Station (ISS).
  • It was launched by Russia and will serve as the country’s main research facility on the space station.
  • Nauka will be attached to the critical Zvezda module on the ISS.
Q5. There has been a persistent deficit budget year after year. Which action/actions of the 
following can be taken by the Government to reduce the deficit? (UPSC 2016)
  1. Reducing revenue expenditure
  2. Introducing new welfare schemes
  3. Rationalizing subsidies
  4. Reducing import duty

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • A budget deficit is when spending exceeds income.
  • Reducing revenue expenditure, rationalizing subsidies will help in reducing the expenditure thereby reducing the deficit.
  • Introducing new welfare schemes will lead to additional expenditure.
  • Reducing import duty will reduce the income received by the government in the form of import duties.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Welfare of teachers is largely neglected in India and the pandemic has worsened their conditions. In this context, examine the working conditions faced by teachers along with suggestions to improve their status. (250 words; 15 marks) [GS-2, Governance]
  2. The recent floods in Europe call attention to the global need for countries to implement nature-friendly policies and ecologically sensitive flood protection measures. Discuss. (250 words; 15 marks) [GS-3, Disaster Management]

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 28th July 2021:- Download PDF Here

Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

*