21 June 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 21st June 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Plan to put Lakshadweep under Karnataka HC
C. GS 3 Related
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
1. Massive distribution of ex gratia will strain finances, says Centre
ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
1. Pact signed to conserve rare turtle in Assam
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. The comrades and their divergent perspectives
F. Prelims Facts
1. Navy team in U.S. for chopper training
2. Work begins on Krivak class frigate
G. Tidbits
1. ‘Concerns on IT rules are highly misplaced’
2. Suffering in silence
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

Category: ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY

1. Pact signed to conserve rare turtle in Assam

Context:

A major temple in Assam has signed a memorandum of understanding with two green NGOs for the long-term conservation of the rare freshwater black softshell turtle or the Nilssonia nigricans.

Details:

  • A vision document 2030 was also launched after Turtle Survival Alliance India and Help Earth signed the pact involving the Hayagriva Madhava Temple Committee.
  • The temple, revered by both Hindus and Buddhists, is at Hajo.

Black softshell turtle:

Black softshell turtle

Image source: The Hindu

  • Black softshell turtle (Nilssonia nigricans) is a species of freshwater turtle.
  • It is found in India (Assam) and Bangladesh.
  • It is called Bostami turtle or Mazari.
  • Until sightings along the Brahmaputra’s drainage in Assam, the black softshell turtle was thought to be “extinct in the wild” and confined only to ponds of temples in northeastern India and Bangladesh.
  • The International Union for Conservation of Nature has in 2021 listed the turtle as “critically endangered”.
  • It does not enjoy legal protection under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972.
  • It has traditionally been hunted for its meat and cartilage, traded in regional and international markets.
  • Their shell is light and flexible. This allows them to move more easily in open water, or in muddy lake bottoms. It also allows them to move much faster on land than most turtles.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Navy team in U.S. for chopper training

What’s in News?

A team of Navy personnel reached the U.S. for training on the MH­60R multi­role helicopters.

Details:

  • A $2.2-billion deal was signed for 24 MH-60R multi-role helicopters during the visit of former US President Donald Trump in February 2020.
  • They are being procured under the Buy (Global) category of the procurement procedure through the Foreign Military Sales route of the U.S.
  • The helicopters are built by Lockheed Martin.

Need for Multi-Role Helicopters (MRH):

  • The Navy is facing an acute shortage of helicopters on its frontline warships as the procurement of new helicopters has been repeatedly delayed.
  • There is a projected requirement of 123 multi-role helicopters.
  • The MRHs in service, Sea King 42Bs, were inducted in the 1980s and are in need of replacement.

2. Work begins on Krivak class frigate

What’s in News?

The formal commencement of the construction process of the second frigate of the additional Krivak class stealth ships.

  • The stealth ship is being built by Goa Shipyard (GSL) with technology transfer from Russia.
  • In 2016, India and Russia signed an Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) for four Krivak or Talwar stealth frigates.
    • Two to be procured directly from Russia and two to be built by the GSL.
  • The Krivak class was a series of frigates and guard ships built in the Soviet Union primarily for the Soviet Navy since 1970.

G. Tidbits

1. ‘Concerns on IT rules are highly misplaced’

What’s in News?

Following the experts’ comments at the U.N. stating that the IT Rules, 2021 are not in line with international human rights principles, India replied saying that the concerns of the experts are highly misplaced.

Details:

  • India defended the IT Rules saying that the Rules were designed to empower ordinary users of social media, and the victims of abuse on social media platforms could have a forum for redressal of their grievances.

IT Rules 2021:

  • Information Technology (Guidelines For Intermediaries And Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 was enacted by the government in February 2021.

Read more on New Social Media Rules, IT Rules 2021: Provisions, Penalties

  • Several concerns had been raised by the social media platforms with respect to the new IT Rules.

Read about the concerns raised in relation to the IT Rules 2021, covered on May 28th, 2021 CNA. 

2. Suffering in silence

  • Over 2,300 domestic violence complaints were filed with the National Commission for Women between January and May in 2021, the highest for any year since 2000. This points to the challenge of domestic violence in India.
  • This number, though high, suffers from possible under-reporting given that according to NFHS-5 data, 70% of women in the major states who faced physical violence did not inform anyone about it or were unable to reach out to the relevant authorities.

For detailed information on the issue of domestic violence refer to:

CNA dated April 13, 2020: Women’s safety during lockdown

CNA dated May 28, 2019: India among countries where women face most violence by partner

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. With reference to the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, which of the 
following statements is/are correct?
  1. It applies to the conduct or commission of an act that harms or injures or has the potential to harm or injure an individual. It does not include omission.
  2. Domestic violence includes physical, financial, sexual violence and not emotional abuse which is the major drawback of this act.
  3. The law also covers children.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 says that any act, conduct, omission or commission that harms or injures or has the potential to harm or injure will be considered domestic violence by the law.
  • Domestic violence includes physical, financial, sexual violence, emotional abuse as well as verbal abuse.
  • The law also covers children.
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to Green Hydrogen:
  1. This is produced from fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage technologies and is less polluting.
  2. Green hydrogen can be used in industry and can be stored in existing gas pipelines to power household appliances.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Hydrogen generated entirely from renewable power sources is called green hydrogen.
  • Green hydrogen can be used in industry and can be stored in existing gas pipelines to power household appliances.
  • Blue Hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage technologies and is less polluting.
Q3. Arrange the types of coal on the basis of carbon content from the highest to the 
lowest rank:
  1. Peat
  2. Bituminous
  3. Anthracite
  4. Lignite

Options:

  1. 1-2-3-4
  2. 2-3-1-4
  3. 3-2-4-1
  4. 4-3-2-1
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • The ranking of the types of coal depends on the types and amounts of carbon the coal contains and on the amount of heat energy the coal can produce.
  • Anthracite is the most mature coal and thus has the highest carbon content of any type of coal.
  • Lignite coal (brown coal) is the lowest grade coal with the least concentration of carbon.
  • Peat is a soft, organic material consisting of partly decayed plant and mineral matter. When peat is placed under high pressure and heat, it undergoes physical and chemical changes to become coal.
  • Highest to lowest ranking: Anthracite, Bituminous, Lignite, Peat (least concentration of carbon).
Q4. NISHTHA recently seen in the news is a
  1. Campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals to provide quality medicines at affordable prices
  2. Program aimed at improving learning outcomes at the elementary level through an Integrated Teacher Training Programme
  3. Web portal for citizens to report children sighted as abandoned, lost or with a suspicious person
  4. Scheme under which cash benefits are provided to pregnant women in their bank account directly
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • NISHTHA stands for National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement Programme.
  • NISHTHA is the world’s largest teachers’ training programme of its kind.
  • It is a program aimed at improving learning outcomes at the elementary level through an Integrated Teacher Training Programme.
  • The basic objective of this massive training programme is to motivate and equip teachers to encourage and foster critical thinking in students.
  • It was launched under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Samagra Shiksha in 2019–20.
Q5. What is/are common to the two historical places known as Ajanta and Mahabalipuram? 
(UPSC 2016)
  1. Both were built in the same period.
  2. Both belong to the same religious denomination.
  3. Both have rock-cut monuments.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. None of the statements given above is correct
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Ajanta rock-cut cave monuments were built during 200 BC-650 AD by the Vakataka kings. These are Buddhist monuments.
  • Mahabalipuram was built between the 7th and the 8th centuries by the Pallavas. It is a Hindu group of monuments.
  • Both have rock-cut monuments.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Evaluate the Centre’s latest move to engage with the political leadership in Kashmir. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS 2 Polity and Governance)
  2. Russia’s uncritical advocacy of China’s global vision is what seems to be leaving India quite confounded. Discuss keeping Indian interests in mind. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS 2 International Relations)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 21st June 2021:- Download PDF Here

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