22 January 2020: PIB Summary & Analysis

Read the daily PIB update and stay up-to-date on current affairs for the UPSC exam.

January 22nd, 2020 PIB:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar
2. PRAGATI Interaction
3. Commission for Sub-Categorisation of OBCs
4. Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -141b
5. Tele-Law
6. Article 6ter of the Paris Convention

1. Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar

Context:

The President of India presented the Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar 2020 at the Rashtrapati Bhavan.

About the Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar:

  • This award scheme gives awards in two categories every year:
    • Bal Shakti Puraskar (to individuals)
    • Bal Kalyan Puraskar (for institutions/individuals working for children)
  • Bal Shakti Puraskar
    • This award is given to children in the fields of innovation, social service, scholastic, sports, art and culture and bravery.
    • It carries a medal, a cash prize of Rs. 1 lakh, a certificate and a citation.
    • It was formerly known as “National Child Award for Exceptional Achievement”.
    • It was instituted in 1996 and renamed to “Bal Shakti Puraskar” in 2018.
  • Bal Kalyan Puraskar
    • This award was instituted in 1979 as “National Child Welfare Awards”.
    • It was renamed in 2018 to “Bal Kalyan Puraskar”.
    • This is given to individuals and/or organisations working in the field of child development, child protection and child welfare.
    • This award is given in two categories – Individual and Institution. Three awards are given in each of these two categories along with cash prizes.
  • Any child with exceptional achievement in the fields of innovation, scholastic achievements, social service, arts & culture, sports and bravery can apply for the award.
  • Also, any person who knows about a meritorious achievement by a child can recommend this child for the award.
  • A high-level committee selects the winners after careful consideration of each application.
  • The scheme is under the Ministry of Women and Child Development.

2. PRAGATI Interaction

Context:

PM chairs the 32nd PRAGATI interaction.

Details:


3. Commission for Sub-Categorisation of OBCs

Context:

The Union Cabinet has approved the extension of the term of the Commission to examine the issue of Sub-categorization of Other Backward Classes, by six months that is up to July 2020.

Details:

  • The Communities in the existing list of OBCs which have not been able to get any major benefit of the scheme of reservation for OBCs for appointment in Central Government posts & for admission in Central Government Educational Institutions are expected to be benefitted upon implementation of the recommendations of the Commission.
  • The Commission is likely to make recommendations for benefit of such marginalized communities in the Central List of OBCs.
  • All persons belonging to the castes/communities which are included in the Central List of SEBCs but which have not been able to get any major benefit of the existing scheme of reservation for OBCs in Central Government posts & for admission in Central Government Educational Institutions would be benefitted.

Background:

  • The Commission was constituted under Article 340 of the Constitution with the approval of the President in October 2017.
    • Article 340 of the Indian Constitution lays down conditions for the appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of the backward classes. The President may by order appoint a Commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India.
  • Chaired by Justice (Retd.) G Rohini, the Commission has interacted with all the States/UTs which have subcategorized OBCs, and the State Backward Classes Commissions.
  • For more on the Commission, check PIB dated 3rd October 2017.

Also read: National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)


4. Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -141b

Context:

India achieves complete phase-out of one of the most potent ozone-depleting chemicals.

Details:

  • India has successfully achieved the complete phase-out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -141b, which is a chemical used by foam manufacturing enterprises.
  • It is one of the most potent ozone-depleting chemicals after Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
  • India has consciously chosen a path for environment-friendly and energy-efficient technologies while phasing out Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs).
  • Importantly, India is one among the few countries globally and a pioneer in some cases in the use of technologies, which are non-Ozone Depleting and have a low Global Warming Potential (GWP).
  • This phase-out of HCFC – 141b was done by 1st January 2020.
  • The issuance of import license for HCFC-141b is prohibited from 1st January 2020 under the Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Amendment Rules, 2019 issued under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • Nearly 50 % of the consumption of ozone-depleting chemicals in the country was attributable to HCFC-141b in the foam sector.
  • The Environment, Forest and Climate Change Ministry adopted a structured approach to engage with foam manufacturing enterprises for providing technical and financial assistance in order to transition to non-ODS and low GWP technologies under HCFC Phase out Management Plan (HPMP).
  • The complete phase-out of HCFC 141b from the country in the foam sector is among the first at this scale in Article 5 parties (developing countries) under the Montreal Protocol.
    • The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
  • Minimising adverse impact on the foam sector:
    • The polyurethane foam sector has links with important economic sectors related to buildings, cold storages and cold chain infrastructure, automobiles, commercial refrigeration, domestic appliances such as refrigerators, water geysers, thermo-ware, office and domestic furniture applications, specific high-value niche applications, etc.
    • In India, the foam manufacturing sector is a mix of large, medium and small enterprises having varying capacities, with a preponderance of MSMEs. Many of the MSMEs operate largely in the informal sector.
    • To ensure minimal dislocation in the sector and for enhancing the capacities of MSMEs in converting to low-GWP non-ODS technologies, training and awareness programmes on non-ODS and low-GWP alternatives to HCFCs including the adoption of such alternatives have been organized in close collaboration with the industry.
    • MSMEs will also be facilitated for adequate tie-ups with system houses, laboratories for getting their material tested, etc. in addition to organizing study tours, field visits, etc.

About Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs):

  • Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are a large group of compounds, whose structure is very close to that of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), but including one or more hydrogen atoms. They are organic and synthetic compounds.
  • They are the second generation of fluorine-based gases, the original replacements for CFCs.
  • The most significant releases of HCFCs occur as leakage from cooling appliances which contain them, both during their manufacture, use and disposal. There are not thought to be any natural sources of HCFCs to the environment.
  • At a global level, releases of HCFCs have serious environmental consequences.
  • As HCFCs contribute both to ozone depletion and global warming, the use of HCFCs is being phased out as part of global legislation, such as the Montreal Protocol.
  • Inhalation, ingestion and exposure to HCFCs can affect human health adversely as well.

5. Tele-Law

Context:

The Department of Justice, Government of India celebrated 1,50,000 registrations for advice on Tele-Law.

About Tele-Law:

  • It is an initiative to provide pre-litigation advice to needy people.
  • The initiative was launched in 2017 with an aim to provide legal advice in the villages through Common Service Centres (CSCs).
  • It is aimed at facilitating the delivery of legal advice through an expert panel of lawyers.
  • The Department has partnered with NASLA and CSC eGovernance Service Ltd for offering this service to poor and marginalised people.
  • The project connects lawyers with clients through video-conferencing/telephone/chat facilities by the Para-Legal Volunteers stationed at CSCs.
  • A dedicated website on Tele-Law is maintained by the Department of Justice which has been designed with support from CSC eGovernance and has been translated into 22 languages.
  • A Tele-Law mobile application is available for the PLVs to pre-register Tele-Law cases.
  • A Tele-Law Dashboard is also developed with decentralized features for login and registration of cases, and for viewing the status of cases added for panel lawyers, PLVs, etc.

6. Article 6ter of the Paris Convention

Context:

Khadi fights back to prevent misuse of its trademarks internationally.

Details:

  • Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) has taken various initiatives for the protection and promotion of Khadi as a brand in India and internationally.
  • KVIC is the registered proprietor of over a hundred trademarks registrations including the symbol of ‘Charkha’ in India and other countries like Russia, China, Germany, Australia, UK and Bhutan.
  • These trademark and symbols however have been misused time and again by private players for material benefits.
  • In an initiative to prevent such misuse any further, for the first time KVIC has taken up the matter with the Ministry of External Affairs, Ministry of Commerce and Permanent Mission of India at UN, Geneva seeking International Trademark protection for the symbol of ‘Charkha’ under the article 6ter of the Paris Convention.

About Article 6ter of the Paris Convention:

  • Article 6ter of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property of 1883 (1967 Stockholm Act) protects armorial bearings, flags and other State emblems as well as official signs and hallmarks of the States party to the Paris Convention.
  • The signs published with World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) under this act are prevented from being registered or used as trademarks, across the world, without authorization.
  • Article 6ter applies to all states which are party to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.

About the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property:

  • The Paris Convention, adopted in 1883, applies to industrial property in the widest sense, including patents, trademarks, industrial designs, utility models, service marks, trade names, geographical indications and the repression of unfair competition.
  • This international agreement was the first major step taken to help creators ensure that their intellectual works were protected in other countries.

January 22nd 2020 PIB:- Download PDF Here

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