NCERT Book Solutions Class 8 Social and Political Life – III Chapter 10
The last chapter contains a total of 11 questions in the exercise. NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice provide the answers to 8 questions. The last 2 questions are for students, so that they can explore the topic in-depth. The answers provided in the solution PDF will familiarize them with answer writing skills. Moreover, it will help students in understanding the topic more thoroughly. NCERT solutions are easy to understand and are accurate.
Students can download the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics PDF below.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics (Social and Political Life) Chapter 10 Law & Social Justice [Download PDF]
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 Law & Social Justice
1. Talk to two workers (For example, construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.
Answer: Students have to do this by themselves.
2. What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Answer: The advantages to foreign companies in setting up their production in India is as follows:
- Foreign companies come to India because of the cheap labour. Wages that the companies pay to workers in foreign countries are far higher than what they have to pay to workers in India.
- Low wages and longer hours of work.
- Minimum additional expenses such as for housing facilities for workers. Thus, companies can save costs and earn higher profits.
- Cost cutting can also be done by other more dangerous means like lowering working conditions, including lower safety measures.
3. Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
Answer: The victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got some monetary compensation, but not justice. It was caused due to gross neglect of safety measures by the factory management. The government represented the people to claim compensation for affected ones. The government demanded 3 billion dollar as a compensation, of which the company compensated only 470 million dollars. Today, after so much tears shed due to the tragedy, there are still people seeking justice. So many victims still fail to avail safe drinking water, healthcare facilities and jobs. Many people who were maimed for life, have no use for the compensation money. Hence, it can be said that the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice.
4. What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Answer: Law enforcement means the implementation of law. Government is responsible for enforcement. Enforcement is important when the law seeks to protect the people belonging to the weaker section from those who are strong and powerful. Enforcement is important to ensure that every worker gets fair wages. When workers are poor or powerless, the fear of losing future earnings or facing reprisals forces them to accept low wages. Employers use this as a tool to pay workers less than the fair wage. In such cases, it is crucial that the laws are enforced.
5. How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Answer: Laws ensure that markets work in a fair manner by protecting the people from unfair practices. The two examples are –
Child Labour Prevention Act: This law states that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engage in any other hazardous employment.
Right against Exploitation: This law states that no one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage.
The government has also passed laws to make sure that essential products such as kerosene, food grain, sugar etc are not highly priced. It is imperative to impose such restrictions on people who are marketing these types of products, so that people of low economic strata can afford these goods.
6. Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 kms away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read out your responses in the classroom.
Students should do this exercise with the help of the teacher
7. Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
Answer: The government plays the following roles:
- Providing public facilities like healthcare, sanitation and water supply and ensures that these are not overtaken by the private enterprises.
- Enforcing law against child labour.
- Fixing minimum wages for workers and revising it from time to time.
- Enforcing laws regarding safety at the workplace.
- Enforcing laws regarding the safety of environment.
- Protecting the interests of consumers against overpricing and standard products.
- Punishing organisations who do not follow policies to protect the environment against pollution.
8. What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Answer: The various sources of environment pollution in our area are as follows:
(a) Smoke from factories and vehicles run by petrol or diesel are the main reasons behind air pollution.
(b) The main cause of water pollution is chemical fertilizers and garbage from factories, farms and houses.
(c) Soil is polluted by the pesticides and fertilisers that are used to grow crops or by garbage dumped by human or by factory waste.
Steps taken to reduce pollution are:
various laws have been enforced to keep a check on the environment pollution.
Promotion of CNG vehicles to reduce air pollution.
Strict actions against companies who violate environmental laws.
No rules or laws can help make our environment clean and free of pollution, until and unless every individual of the society takes the responsibility on his part to keep their environment clean. Only voluntary actions can make our environment pollution free.
9. How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
Answer: The environment was treated as a ‘free’ entity and any industry or individual could pollute the environment without any restrictions. There were very few laws to protect and conserve the environment in India. Government also paid no attention to safeguarding the environment.
Now, there has been a change in perception. Government has introduced various laws to protect and conserve the environment such as Swachh Bahrat Abhiyan. The courts have given out a number of judgments, upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the fundamental right to life. Various laws and procedures to check pollution and clean rivers have been formed. The government can also impose a fine to those who pollute our precious environment.
Chapter 10 Law And Social Justice Summary
To protect people from exploitation, the government makes certain laws and tries to ensure that the unfair practices are kept at a minimum in the markets. But merely making laws is not enough. It must be enforced too. The government has to ensure that these laws are implemented. Enforcement becomes even more important when the law seeks to protect the weak from the strong.
Through creating, enforcing and upholding these laws, the government can control the activities of individuals or private companies to ensure social justice. But many of these laws have their basis in the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution of India such as the Right against Exploitation, which states that no one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage. Similarly, the constitution lays down the rule that “no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work.
You will read about the following:
- How laws are played out in practice
- To what extent do laws address the social justice concerns of the people?
- The Bhopal Gas Tragedy
- What are workers worth?
- Enforcement of Safety Laws
- New laws to protect the environment.
‘Resources and Development’ is an important book for Class 8 Social Sciences subject. Apart from this chapter, the full set of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science is given in the linked article.