NCERT Book Solutions Class 8 Social and Political Life – III Chapter 9
The 2019 news reports revealed that Maharashtra was facing a water emergency of unprecedented proportions. Media reports also claimed that IT companies in Chennai were asking employees to work from home. Consecutively, in North India, residents in the arid Thar Desert of Rajasthan were dishing out Rs 2,500 to buy 2,500 litres of water, which they shared with their cattle. Water, essential for life and good health is not only vital for us to meet our daily needs but safe drinking water can also prevent many water-related diseases. The Constitution of India recognises the right to water as being a part of the Right to Life under Article 21. Chapter 9 of CBSE Class 8 Social and Political Life-III uses water as the primary example to discuss public facilities. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities contains solutions to the exercises given in the Civics book – Social and Political Life. NCERT Solutions of the exercises will be useful for school exam preparations.
Students can download the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics PDF below.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities
1. Why do you think there are so few cases of private water supply in the world?
Answer: Water is a basic necessity. Hence, universal access to safe drinking water is necessary for a standard quality of life. It needs to be provided to everyone – either free of charge or at affordable rates. But, as private companies work towards the singular goal of maximising profits, there was a steep rise in the price of water in cases where the responsibility for water supply was handed over to private companies. This made water unaffordable for many. Cities saw huge protests with riots breaking out at various places. This forced the government to take back the service from private hands. Therefore, only a few cases of private water supply exists in the world.
2. Do you think water in Chennai is available to and affordable by all? Discuss.
Answer: Water is not equally available to all citizens in Chennai. Water in Chennai is supplied by the municipality, which fails to meet the demand 100%. Some areas get regular water supply, while many areas get erratic supply of water. People from the middle class and upper class buy packaged drinking water or water from tankers. The burden of water supply shortage falls mostly on the poor, as they cannot afford the expense of tanker or packaged water. Those who live close to the storage points get more water, while colonies further away receive less supply.
3. How is the sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai affecting the local people? Do you think local people can object to such exploitation of groundwater? Can the government do anything in this regard?
Answer: Due to the shortage of water, private companies have got an opportunity and are selling water to cities by buying it from places around the city. In Chennai, water is taken from nearby towns like, Karungizhi Palur and Mamandur villages to the north of the city, using a fleet of over 13,000 water tankers. Every month, the water dealers pay an advance to farmers for the rights to exploit water sources on their land. This way, the water that is taken away is not just creating a deficit for agriculture purpose but also increasing the shortage of drinking water supplies in the villagers. As a result, the level of ground water has dropped drastically in all these towns and villages.
4. Why are most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas?
Answer Most of the private schools and hospitals are located in the cities, rather than in towns or villages. Because their sole motive is maximum profit, the services they offer are costly and are affordable only by the affluent dwellers in the city.
5. Do you think the distribution of public facilities in our country is adequate and fair? Give an example of your own to explain.
Answer While there is no doubt that public facilities should be made available to all, in reality, we see that there is a great shortage of such facilities. The distribution of public facilities in our country is neither adequate nor fair. For example, the Delhites avail all public facilities like healthcare and sanitation, water, electricity, schools, colleges and public transport. But if we go to places a few kilometers away such as Mathura or Aligarh, people have to face grave crises for these facilities. Water shortages and Electricity cut-offs are part of the normal routine of life in those places. Public transport is also not properly developed. Compared to the metros and large cities, towns and villages are under-provided. Compared to wealthy localities, the poorer localities are under-serviced. Handing over these facilities to private companies is not an answer. The important fact is that every citizen of the country has a right to these facilities, which should be provided to all in an equitable manner.
6. Take some of the public facilities in your area, such as water, electricity, etc. Is there scope to improve these? What in your opinion should be done? Complete the table.
|Is it available?||How can it be improved?|
|Is it available?||How can it be improved?|
|Water||yes||Constructing separate water tanks and making water supply available 24 hours.|
|Electricity||yes||Making electricity supply available 24 hours by keeping a check on electricity theft and its conservation|
|Road||yes||No improvement needed. But if there are no proper roads, then the construction of new roads, more flyovers and highways will be of help|
|Public Transport||yes||Public transport is good, but better connectivity to more areas in the city can be achieved by introducing new buses and increasing the frequency of buses|
7. Are the above public facilities shared equally by all the people in your area? Elaborate.
Answer No the above-mentioned facilities are not shared equally in the areas. Water supply is not shared equally by all the people. The slum dwellers have to manage with a single water tap, where each house in a middle-class locality has a separate connection for water. When people of middle-class homes buy water from tankers to meet their needs, those in slums cannot afford it. However, other facilities, like electricity, road and public transport are shared equally by all.
8. Data on some of the public facilities are collected as part of the Census. Discuss with your teacher when and how the Census is conducted.
Answer Students have to do this under the guidance of their teacher.
9. Private educational institutions – schools, colleges, universities, technical and vocational training institutes are coming up in our country in a big way. On the other hand, educational institutes run by the government are becoming relatively less important. What do you think would be the impact of this? Discuss.
Answer Education is a basic need and there should be universal access to education. But, as the main motive of private education institutes is earning profits, they charge high fees which are affordable only by the affluent section of the society. Thus, the right to quality education is only fulfilled for the rich class. Similarly, if government education institutes are not up to the mark, then weaker sections are again deprived of quality education. This, in turn, results in the disparity of quality education between the rich and the poor.
Chapter 9 Public Facilities Summary
Public facilities are the facilities provided by the government to the people of the country to sustain and lead a comfortable life. The major role of the government is to ensure adequate public facilities for everyone. It gives rise to better living indices and helps any country to get recognised at the international level in terms of development. Public facilities are related to the basic needs and the Indian Constitution has recognised the right to water, health, education, etc. as being a part of the Right to Life.
You will read about the following:
- Water and the People of Chennai: Water as a public utility is available in different quantities to different people. Safe drinking water comes under the fundamental right of an individual and it is the responsibility of the government to avail it to its citizens.
- Water as Part of the Fundamental Rights to Life: Water is essential for life and for good health.
- India has one of the largest numbers of causes of water-related diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery and cholera. The Constitution of India recognizes the right to water as being a part of the Right to Life under Article 21. That means there should be “universal access” to water.
- Public Facilities: Things like electricity, public transport, schools and colleges, etc. which are necessary for survival and daily life are known as public facilities. Public facilities are provided so that their benefits can be shared by many people.
- The Government’s Role: The most important functions of the government is to ensure that these public facilities are made available to everyone. The government’s role also includes making a provision for education, setting up schools & colleges, ensuring equal distribution of food throughout the country, Improving health & sanitation facilities, Improving the means of transport and maintaining public utility works like post offices, railways and roads.
‘Resources and Development’ is an important book for Class 8 Social Science subject. Apart from this chapter, the full set of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science is given in the linked article.