High Courts in India
A High Court is located in a state, but some states do not have a High Court located within their territory. While most states have their High Courts exclusively, in case of others, there is a High Court for two or more than two states. For example, there is a High Court in Orissa and it sits at Cuttack. The jurisdiction of this High Court does not include another state/ union territory. On the contrary, the jurisdiction of Calcutta High Court includes not only West Bengal, but also Andaman and Nicobar island. Similarly, both Punjab and Haryana come under the jurisdiction of Punjab High Court sitting at Chandigarh. Besides, there is a common High Court for seven states – Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
According to Article 214, every state of India shall have a High Court. The High Court is the highest judicial body in a state. There is no uniformity among the High Courts regarding the number of Judges they will have. On this matter, there is a difference from High Court to High Court. The High Court of a small state shall have small number of Judges while the High Court of a large state shall have proportionately large number of Judges. In Orissa at present, there are 14 Judges including the Chief Justice. The Chief Justice is the senior most among the Judges of a High Court. In the past, the senior most Judge of a High Court was being appointed as its Chief Justice when a vacancy occurred. In recent years this practice has changed and a senior Judge of another High Court is being appointed as it; Chief Justice. Further, a Judge of one High Court can be transferred to any other High Court by the President of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of India.