India has a cohesive judiciary system and the Supreme Court is the apex court. The High Court is the supreme judicial body in a state. According to Article 214, each state of India shall have a High Court. It is the final interpreter of the constitution.
There are 24 High Courts in India, three having control over more than one State. Delhi has a High Court of its own among the Union Territories. Each High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other judges appointed by the President of India.
This article is an important topic in the Indian Polity for the IAS Exam.
High Courts in India
Composition of the High Court
- Every High Court comprises of a Chief Justice and other judges appointed by President.
- There is no fixed minimum number of judges for the High Courts. It varies from Court to Court and from State to State.
Qualifications and Tenure
A person shall not be fit for appointment as a Judge of the High Court unless
- He is a citizen of India
- He has been for at least 5 years a judge of one or of two or more High Court
- He has been for at least 10 years an advocate of one or of two or more High Court
For detailed information on similar relevant topics given in the UPSC Syllabus, refer to the linked article.
We have already come up with Powers and Functions of High Court. Here we are giving the list of high courts and with the establishment year and jurisdiction areas. This will enhance your UPSC IAS Prelims exam preparation.
The list of High Courts in India has been given below:
|List of High Courts in India|
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
Andaman & Nicobar islands
|Kolkata (Bench of Port Blair)|
|1866||Allahabad||Uttar Pradesh||Allahabad (Bench at Lucknow)|
|1928||Jammu & Kashmir||Jammu & Kashmir||Srinagar|
|1956||Madhya Pradesh||Madhya Pradesh||Jabalpur (Bench-Gwalior and Indore)|
|1958||Kerala||Kerala & Lakshadweep||Ernakulam|
|1975||Punjab & Haryana||Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh||Chandigarh|
|2019||Andhra Pradesh||Andhra Pradesh||Amravati|
List of High Courts in India:- Download PDF Here
Important Terms related to High Courts in India:
Tribunal – A tribunal is a term for anybody acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate appearing before a Court on which a single Judge was sitting could describe that judge as ‘their tribunal’.
Permanent Bench – A permanent bench comprises of one or more High Court judges who sit yearlong at a particular location that is different from the permanent seat of the High Court.
Circuit Bench – A Circuit Bench is for territories which are far-flung but do not have too many matters to justify a full-fledged permanent bench. As a result, once or twice a year, some judges travel to these areas and dispose off all the High Court appeals of that jurisdiction.
Division Bench – In a Division Bench, a case is heard and judged by at least 2 judges.
Full Bench – A Full bench refers to a court of law consisting of a greater-than-normal number of judges.
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