Major Crops India for UPSC IAS Prelims Examination

India has a great history of agrarian culture. Agriculture is the soul of rural India. It is an ancient form of economic activity in our country. It also contributes a significant figure to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In UPSC IAS Exam also, it is an important part of the Indian economy and Indian geography. As the UPSC asks factual questions according to the recent trend, this year also aspirant can expect similar questions.

To ease the UPSC IAS Exam preparation we are giving major crops and states in India. Along with major crops, aspirants should know the crop variety, the different types of soil suitable for that crop and the states producing the crop. This is an important topic in Geography for UPSC IAS Exam.

India is diverse in all spheres. The country is bestowed with the plethora of flora fauna. The crops in India have divided four categories. They are:



Cash Crops

Spices, Tobacco, Cotton, Oilseeds etc

Plantation Crops

Rubber, Coffee, Coconut and Tea

Food Crops

Rice, Wheat, Maize, Pulses and Millets


Vegetables and fruits

Major Crops Grown in India



Soil type


Rice (Kharif, Rabi)

Aman, Sali, Afghani, Aus, Boro,

Clay or Loamy soil

West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,

Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, and Assam

Wheat (Rabi)

Kalyan Sona, Heera and Sonalika

Sandy loam, Clay loam

Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra,  and Gujarat

Cotton (Kharif)

Short Staple

Medium Staple Long Staple

Black soil

Maharashtra,  Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha

Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, and  Punjab


Tossa Jute and White Jute

Sandy and Clay Loam

West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh

Sugarcane(Kharif, Rabi)

Clayey Loamy Soil, and Red Loamy Soil

Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Punjab


Loamy soil acidic in nature and rich in organic matter

Assam, Darjeeling (West Bengal), Meghalaya, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka


Arabica and Robusta

Well-drained forest loam

Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Odisha, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland

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