National Organ and Tissue Transplant Programme (NOTP) is being implemented by the Directorate General of Health Services under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. The programme aims to improve access to life-transforming transplantation for needy citizens by promoting deceased organ donation.
The central government has implemented the NOTP to promote organ donation in the country by bridging the gap between demand and supply of organs from transplantation.
This article provides information regarding an important initiative of the Indian Government – National Organ and Tissue Transplant Programme (NOTP) in the context of the IAS Exam.
This article can be helpful for the essay and GS 2 segment of the UPSC Syllabus.
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Facts related to National Organ and Tissue Transplant Programme (NOTP) for UPSC
|Brief facts of NOTP – UPSC Prelims|
|Which ministry is associated with organ transplantation in India?||Ministry of Health & Family Welfare|
|What is the full form of NOTTO?||National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation|
|Where is NOTTO located?||New Delhi|
|When is Indian Organ donation day celebrated by NOTTO?||27th November|
Objectives of NOTP
- To organise a system of deceased organ and tissue procurement & distribution for transplantation.
- To promote deceased organ and tissue donation following the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue Rules, 2014.
- To protect vulnerable poor from organ trafficking.
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Acts related to Organ/Tissue Donation
- Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994
- The government of India enacted it to provide for the regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for the prevention of commercial dealings in human organs.
- The High Court of Delhi constituted a committee to review the provisions of the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994 and the Transplantation of Human Organ Rules, 1995.
- Transplantation of Human Organs (Amendment) Act, 2011
- The 1994 act was amended by the Government of India in order to streamline the process of organ transplantation and curb instances of illegal dealings.
- The THOA Act encourages deceased donation, permits donation from living persons who are near relatives and swap donations.
|Who are the “near relatives” according to THOA Act?
The ‘near relative’ can include grandparents and grandchildren in addition to parents, children, brother, sister and spouse.
- Similarly, Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Rules, 2014 was notified by the government of India to supersede the Transplantation of Human Organ Rules, 1995.
What are some important amendments included in THOA Act, 2011?
- The act has included matters related to tissue donation in addition to organs.
- The provision of swap donation was included.
- The definition of “near relatives” have been expanded to include grandparents and grandchildren.
- The act prohibits organ donations from mentally challenged persons.
- The Act enhances the penalty for unauthorised removal of human organs and for receiving or making payment for human organs.
- Also, higher penalties for trading in organs have been mandated under the act.
At Apex level – National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO)
- It is located in New Delhi.
- NOTTO is set up under the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- It has two divisions:
- National Human Organ and Tissue Removal and Storage Network
- National Biomaterial Centre
|National Human Organ and Tissue Removal and Storage Network
National Biomaterial Centre
At Regional level – Regional Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisations (ROTTOs)
- Five ROTTOs have been set up at the following locations:
At State level – State Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisations (SOTTOs)
- SOTTOs has been established in twelve States.
Status of Organ/Tissue Donation in India
- The organ donation rate in India is currently less than 1 per million, compared to Spain having 35 donations per million.
- The deceased donation is almost insignificant in a country of 1.2 billion population in India.
- India is the 3rd country in the world, after the USA and China, in terms of the total number of transplants done in a year.
- Capacity for undertaking rare transplants e.g. Pancreas, Intestine, hand, limbs, Lung, Uterus have developed within the country, besides a significant enhancement in capacities for undertaking relatively common transplants of Kidney, Liver, and Heart.
- According to the standing committee report, the total number of transplants done in the country has increased from 4990 in 2013 to 12666 in 2019 indicating a marked improvement in infrastructure for undertaking transplants in the country.
- The Parliamentary Standing Committee, on Health and Family Welfare, has recommended the continuation of the National Organ Transplant program (NOTP) during the period 2021-26.
- The standing committee has recommended the continuation of the NOTP.
- Also, stressed the need to strengthen the program in terms of infrastructure, administrative powers, human resources, training, and budget, etc.
FAQ about National Organ and Tissue Transplant Programme (NOTP)
What is swap donation?
Who is a deceased person?
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