The Treaty of Salbai, which ended the First Anglo-Maratha War, was signed on 17 May 1782 between the British East India Company and the Marathas. Salbai is situated in Gwalior District, Madhya Pradesh. This article briefly covers the chronology of events leading up to the Treaty of Salbai, the modalities of the agreement between the Marathas and the British, and finally, the war that took place after the Treaty of Salbai was broken. Aspirants would find this article very helpful while preparing for the IAS Exam.
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Treaty of Salbai – Chronology of Events Leading to the Treaty
- The First Anglo-Maratha War started in 1775 effectively after the signing of the Treaty of Surat between the East India Company at Bombay and Raghunathrao, uncle of the newly-crowned Peshwa Narayanrao. Raghunathrao had nurtured ambitions to become the Peshwa for which he sought British help.
- However, the Calcutta Council of the company supported Narayanrao and his able minister Nana Phadnavis, who between themselves had signed the Treaty of Purandar (1776) which nullified the Surat Treaty.
- This new treaty gave the British possession of Salsette and also pensioned off Raghunathrao.
- But, the Bombay Council’s sheltering of Raghunathrao and Nana Phadnavis’s granting of a port to the French deteriorated the already strained relations between the English and the Marathas.
- The Battle of Wadgaon followed in which the Marathas, ably led by Mahadaji Shinde defeated the English. The English were forced to accept the Treaty of Wadgoan.
- However, more battles ensued between the rivals, and finally, the Treaty of Salbai was signed which effectively ended the hostilities.
- This treaty was signed after a lot of negotiations between the warring groups. As per the treaty, the areas of Salsette and Broach (Bharuch) were to be retained by the Company.
- The Marathas, for their part, were to guarantee that they would defeat Mysore’s Hyder Ali and retake the former Maratha possessions in the Carnatic.
- They also promised not to allow any French settlements in their regions.
- The British, in turn, accepted Narayanrao’s son Madhavrao II as the rightful Peshwa and pensioned off Raghunathrao.
- They also acknowledged Mahadaji Shinde’s territories west of the River Yamuna. All the territories acquired by them after the Treaty of Purandar were given back to the Marathas.
- However, the peace was temporary as the Second Anglo-Maratha War broke out in 1802, twenty years after the Salbai Treaty.
Candidates should read about the subsequent Anglo-Maratha wars in the linked articles below:
Also on this day
2005: The first ‘World Information Society Day’ proclaimed by the United Nations.
See previous ‘This Day in History’ here.
The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2021.