27 Jul 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Quote for the day Set 5 11

CNA 27 July 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. The killing of activists in Myanmar and its aftermath
C. GS 3 Related
INFRASTRUCTURE
1. Power tariff revisions and the state of DISCOMs
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
ECONOMY
1. Whose GDP is it anyway?
F. Prelims Facts
1. India adds five more Ramsar sites
2. Light-mantled Albatross
G. Tidbits
1. Can promises of ‘irrational’ poll freebies be curbed, SC asks govt.
2. 2 BSF personnel killed in anti-UN protest in Congo
3. Third parties joining CPEC is inherently illegal: India
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

F. Prelims Facts

1. India adds five more Ramsar sites

Syllabus: GS-3, Environment; Conservation

Prelims: Ramsar Convention and the Ramsar sites of India

Context

India has added five more Ramsar sites.

Details

  • The five newly added wetlands of international importance include:
    • Karikili Bird Sanctuary, Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest and Pichavaram Mangrove in Tamil Nadu
    • Sakhya Sagar in Madhya Pradesh
    • Pala Wetlands in Mizoram
  • With this, the Ramsar sites in India have been increased from 49 to 54 sites.
  • Wetlands, according to the MoEFCC, are an “area of marsh, fen, peatland or water; whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres, but does not include river channels, paddy fields, human-made water bodies/tanks specifically constructed for drinking water purposes and structures specifically constructed for aquaculture, salt production, recreation and irrigation purposes.”
  • To be named a Ramsar site, the wetland must adhere to at least one of nine criteria as defined by the Ramsar Convention.
  • India’s Ramsar wetlands cover over 11,000 sq.km which accounts for about 10% of the total wetland area in the country across 18 States.
  • With 54 sites, India has the most number of sites among all the South Asian countries.
  • The U.K. (175) and Mexico (142) have the most number of Ramsar sites.

Learn more about Ramsar sites in India.

2. Light-mantled Albatross

Syllabus: GS-3, Environment; Conservation

Prelims: Light-mantled Albatross

Context

The Light-mantled Albatross was spotted for the first time in Asia on the Rameswaram coast in Tamil Nadu.

Light-mantled Albatross 

Light mantled Albatross

Image Source: ebird.org

  • Light-mantled Albatross is a bird species native to the Antarctic seas.
  • The species shows broad oceanic or marine habits, and it maintains a circumpolar distribution in the Southern Ocean. 
  • Light-mantled albatrosses have nasal tubes on the upper bill called naricorns, though with albatrosses these are on the sides of the upper mandible rather than the top. 
  • They also have a salt gland above the nasal passage which excretes a concentrated saline solution to maintain osmotic balance, due to the amount of seawater imbibed.
  • It is known to breed on various sub-Antarctic islands, such as 
    • Macquarie Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands of Australia
    • South Georgia Island which is a British Overseas Territory
    • Prince Edward Islands of South Africa
    • Iles Kerguelen and Iles Crozet of France
    • Auckland, Campbell, and Antipodes Islands of New Zealand
  • IUCN Status: Near Threatened

G. Tidbits

1. Can promises of ‘irrational’ poll freebies be curbed, SC asks govt.

  • A Supreme Court Bench led by the Chief Justice of India flagged the issue as “serious” and asked for measures to curb the promise of “freebies” to entice voters.
  • The Supreme Court asked the Centre to discuss with the Finance Commission if there is a way to prevent the political parties from promising and distributing “irrational freebies” during election campaigns.
  • Experts feel that the Finance Commission which is an independent body can take into account the debts of each individual State and find out whether the offers of freebies would be viable for them while making allocations to the States.

To read more about the issue refer to the following article:

UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis dated 29 Apr 2022

2. 2 BSF personnel killed in anti-UN protest in Congo

  • Two Border Security Force (BSF) personnel, part of the United Nations Peacekeeping contingent, were killed in violent armed protests in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • Two BSF personnel were working in Beni and Butembo as a part of the United Nations Organisation Stabilisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO).
  • According to MONUSCO, the attacks against its personnel, facilities and operations constitute war crimes subject to proceedings before international courts.

3. Third parties joining CPEC is inherently illegal: India

  • India has held that the efforts of broadening China Pakistan Economic Corridor’s (CPEC) scope are “inherently illegal” even as China and Pakistan held a meeting to bring other countries into the CPEC.
  • Any actions of broadening CPEC directly infringe on India’s sovereignty and territorial integrity as India has been opposing projects by the CPEC in the parts of Indian territory that have been illegally occupied by Pakistan.
  • CPEC consists of infrastructure projects which aim to connect China’s mainland with the Gulf countries by passing through the Himalayan range in Gilgit Baltistan and Pakistan-occupied Kashmir.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the following is not a member of the Developing eight countries (D-8) 
grouping? (Level – Difficult)
  1. Sri Lanka
  2. Pakistan
  3. Turkey
  4. Nigeria
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • D-8, also known as Developing-8, is an organization for cooperation among Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan and Turkey.
  • The establishment of D-8 was announced through the Istanbul Declaration of Summit of Heads of State/Government on June 15, 1997.
  • Sri Lanka is not a member of the D-8 grouping. Hence option a is the correct answer.
Q2. Consider the following statements about the World Economic Outlook report: 
(Level – Medium)
  1. It is published by the International Monetary Fund.
  2. It analyzes and predicts global economic developments during the near and medium term.
  3. It is usually published four times a year.

Which of the above statements are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct, World Economic Outlook report is published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • Statement 2 is correct, World Economic Outlook report presents IMF economists the analyses of global economic developments during the near and medium term.
  • Statement 3 is not correct, It is usually published two times a year.
Q3. Consider the following statements with respect to organic farming: (Level – Difficult)
  1. India currently ranks first in terms of certified area of organic agriculture globally.
  2. India has the highest number of certified organic farmers in the world.
  3. The Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana aimed to promote organic farming provides for technical assistance and it does not provide any kind of monetary support.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct, According to the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) and the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM)  Statistics 2022, India is currently ranked fourth in terms of certified area of organic agriculture globally.
  • Statement 2 is correct, India is ranked first in the number of certified organic farmers in the world.
  • Statement 3 is not correct, the Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) launched in 2015 aims to promote organic farming and provides technical assistance along with financial assistance of Rs. 50,000 per hectare/3 years.
Q4. Consider the following statements about the International Space Station: 
(Level – Easy)
  1. It is jointly run by the space agencies of the U.S., Russia, Europe, Japan, China and Canada.
  2. It is placed in high earth Orbit.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct, The International Space Station (ISS) is a manmade space station or artificial satellite that is habitable for humans in space.
    • ISS is jointly run by NASA (USA), Roscosmos (Russia), European Space Agency (ESA-Europe), JAXA (Japan) and the Canadian Space Agency (Canada).
  • Statement 2 is not correct, ISS is placed in low earth orbit.
Q5. Who among the following Mughal Emperors shifted emphasis from illustrated manuscripts 
to album and individual portrait? (Level – Medium) PYQ (2019) 
  1. Humayun
  2. Akbar
  3. Jahangir
  4. Shah Jahan
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Jahangir was especially fond of art and architecture.
  • He commissioned, catalogued and preserved many artworks. He also kept a zoo where he documented each species of animal. He was exposed to European artworks through the Jesuits who visited his court and encouraged his court painters to adopt European styles as well.

CNA 27 July 2022:- Download PDF Here

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