29 July 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 29th July 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
EDUCATION
1. PM to roll out academic credit bank
POLITY
1. No immunity for acts of vandalism: SC
C. GS 3 Related
DEFENCE
1. Second Rafale squadron operationalised
SECURITY
1. Mizoram and Assam to solve row amicably
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
EDUCATION
1. Japanese education spells holistic development
ECONOMY
1. Virulence and variance
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. A judgment that must be taken in the right spirit
POPULATION
1. No need for a drastic population policy
F. Prelims Facts
1. Chandrayaan¬3 mission likely late next year
G. Tidbits
1. Democratic values bind India, U.S., says Blinken
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

Category: POLITY

1. No immunity for acts of vandalism: SC

Context:

The Supreme Court held that lawmakers cannot indulge in criminal acts on the Parliament or Assembly floors and then take cover behind the right to free speech.

Background:

  • MLAs in the Kerala Assembly had vandalised the Speaker’s dais, uprooted his chair, pulled out the mike system, computer, etc. in 2015.
  • The Kerala government had cited privileges and immunity to MLAs and urged the court to drop cases against the leaders.
  • The accused leaders had claimed parliamentary privilege, arguing that the incident occurred inside the Assembly hall. They claimed immunity from criminal prosecution.
  • The Kerala High Court, in an order passed, had refused to give its nod saying that the elected representatives are expected to uphold the prestige of the House or face consequences.

Details:

  • The SC dismissed the Kerala government’s plea seeking the court’s nod to withdraw cases against CPI(M) leaders for vandalism in the State Assembly in 2015.
  • It made it clear that destruction of public property in the House cannot be equated with freedom of expression and immunity to legislators can’t be extended as immunity against criminal law.
  • The bench asserted that the privileges and immunity accorded to MLAs and MPs do not mean they will enjoy immunity from criminal acts within the House and the trial court was correct in rejecting the application for withdrawal of FIR.
    • These privileges bear a functional relationship to the discharge of the functions of a legislator.
  • It added that privileges are not a mark of status, which allow legislators to stand on a different pedestal, and privileges are also not a gateway to claim exemption from the law.
  • It said that the boundaries of lawful behaviour apply to all, including MLAs who hold responsible elected office in the Legislative Assembly. Adding that no member of an elected legislature can claim either a privilege or an immunity to stand above the sanctions of the criminal law, which applies equally to all citizens.
  • The court explained that the purpose of bestowing privileges and immunities to elected members of the legislature was to enable them to perform their “essential functions” without hindrance, fear or favour.

Category: SECURITY

1. Mizoram and Assam to solve row amicably

Context:

An extensive border row between Assam and Mizoram took a violent turn.

This issue has been covered in  July 27th, 2021 CNA.

Details:

  • Both the states have agreed to continue discussions to resolve the border issue amicably.
  • They have also agreed to the deployment of the Central Armed Police Forces in the disturbed areas along their border.

Category: ECONOMY

1. Virulence and variance

Context:

  • The IMF’s latest update to its World Economic Outlook report.

Details:

  • Though the latest report projects the global economy to expand at an unchanged pace of 6% (April forecast) this year, the report notes a widening variance in the global recovery from the economic strains caused by the pandemic.
    • While the world’s advanced economies are forecasted to register faster growth than earlier forecasts, the emerging markets and developing economies are expected to post appreciably slower recoveries.
    • While some countries are normalizing their economic activities post the COVID-19-induced curbs, some countries are continuing to struggle in tackling the pandemic.
  • The primary reason for this divergence seems to be the difference in vaccine access and the pace of vaccination coverage and the ability of the countries to provide for additional fiscal support.

Concerns:

  • The IMF has warned that “countries lagging in vaccination, such as India and Indonesia, would suffer the most among G20 economies” in the event of the emergence of a super-contagious virus variant.
    • India with only around 7% of the total population fully vaccinated, lags behind the estimated global average of about 14%.
  • The divergence in the world’s economies does not augur well for long term economic and social sustainability.
  • The report has downgraded India’s economic outlook over the impact of the second wave of the pandemic in India. Inflation, lack of demand in the economy and the government’s reluctance to provide higher fiscal support continue to remain major challenges for economic revival in India.

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. A judgment that must be taken in the right spirit

Context:

  • In the context of the recent Supreme Court judgment in the Union of India vs Rajendra N. Shah case where the three-judge bench of the SC struck down certain provisions of the 97th Constitutional Amendment, the article argues for the cooperative sector to be left in the domain of the States itself.

This topic has been covered previously in the following articles:

UPSC Comprehensive News Analysis 21st July 2021

UPSC Comprehensive News Analysis of 23rd July 2021

  • The article also argues that given that the organising principles and mechanism of the cooperatives differ from area to area and depend on the industry or crop, the government must desist from striving for homogeneity in the cooperative sector through measures such as the 97th constitutional amendment as well the recently formed Ministry of Cooperation.

Category: POPULATION

1. No need for a drastic population policy

Background:

  • Draft legislations aimed at controlling the population have been proposed by the states of Assam and Uttar Pradesh.

For information on this topic refer to the following article:

CNA dated July 12, 2021: New population policy keeps all sections in mind: Adityanath

Concerns:

  • The article argues against the proposed legislations based on the following arguments:

Stabilizing TFR:

  • The stated aim of the policy is to reduce the total fertility rate in the states.
  • As per the document on population projection, published by the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in 2019, UP will reach a replacement rate (the rate at which women give birth to enough babies to sustain population levels) of 2.1 by 2025, and Assam by 2020. Hence there is no need for any drastic population policy.

Overlooking socio-economic factors:

  • The proposed legislations seem to overlook the fact that the fertility rate depends on socio-economic characteristics like education, income, maternal and child health conditions, and other associated factors.
  • Without measures to tackle these factors, the proposed legislation with its stated aim to bring down TFR will remain ineffective.

Unintended consequences:

  • The population control policy of imposing a two-child norm could have other unintended consequences.
  • Given the issue of preference for a male child in our patriarchal society, the two-child norm will only increase sex-selective abortions of girl children, and female infanticide, since couples will want to maintain both the two-child norm as proposed by the government as well as their preference for sons.

Problem of ageing:

  • As per the population projection report, the proportion of people aged 60 years and above in India will increase from 13.8% in 2011 to 23.1% in 2036. The two-child norm would aggravate the problem of ageing in India.
    • The number of workers will go down. The dependency ratio will rise.
    • Government expenditure on the welfare of senior citizens will have to be increased. This will be a challenge given the limited resource base of India.

Experience of other countries:

  • The experience of countries like China with respect to regulation of the number of children in the family indicates the concerns associated with such a policy.

For information on China’s regulation of the number of children and the associated concerns, refer to the following article:

UPSC Comprehensive News Analysis 2nd June 2021

For more information on the concerns associated with the proposed population policies of the state of UP, refer to the following article:

UPSC Comprehensive News Analysis 14th July 2021

F. Prelims Facts

1. Chandrayaan¬3 mission likely late next year

What’s in News?

The Chandrayaan-3 mission is likely to be launched in 2022.

Chandrayaan-3:

  • Chandrayaan-3 is ISRO’s third mission to Moon.
  • The Mission will target a soft landing near the Lunar South-pole.
  • It will only include a lander and rover similar to that of Chandrayaan-2.
  • Unlike its predecessor, Chandrayaan-3 will not have an orbiter.
  • The Chandrayaan-3 lander will also be equipped with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV).
  • The Chandrayaan-3 takes cues from the first Chandrayaan mission launched in October 2008that made major discoveries including finding evidence of water on the lunar surface.

Chandrayaan-3 is critical for ISRO as it will demonstrate India’s capabilities to make landings for further interplanetary missions.

Chandrayaan-2:

  • The Chandrayaan-2 mission, launched in July 2019, was scheduled to be an effort aimed at landing a rover on the Lunar South Pole.
  • It was sent aboard the country’s most powerful geosynchronous launch vehicle, the GSLV-Mk 3.
  • However, the lander Vikram, instead of a controlled landing, ended up crash-landing on September 7, 2019, and stymied the effort.

G. Tidbits

1. Democratic values bind India, U.S., says Blinken

What’s in News?

US Secretary of State Antony Blinken’s visit to India.

Details:

  • The secretary of state highlighted that democratic values and free citizenry bind India and the U.S. together.
  • The US secretary of state and India’s External Affairs Minister discussed cooperation on a wide range of issues, including Afghanistan, countering COVID-19, the Indo-Pacific strategy and the Quad.
  • On Afghanistan, both sides agreed that there was no military solution to the conflict, and that taking over the country by force would not help the Taliban gain the international recognition or legitimacy it desires, including the lifting of sanctions and travel bans against the Taliban leadership.
  • Both the dignitaries also highlighted cooperation in the Indo-Pacific as part of the ‘Quad’ with Japan and Australia.
  • The two sides also spoke about the Quad’s initiative to provide Indian-made vaccines in the Indo-Pacific region.
    • Blinken announced a $25-million grant for India’s vaccine programme, and promised to strengthen vaccine supply chains to enhance production.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements about Raja Mircha:
  1. It is a variety of chilli from Andhra Pradesh considered as the world’s hottest chilli.
  2. It got GI certification in 2008.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • It is a variety of chilli from Nagaland and is one of the hottest chillies in the world.
  • It is also known as ghost pepper and bhut jolokia.
  • It got Geographical Indication certification in 2008.
  • As per the Scoville scale, the unit used to measure spicy heat of chilli peppers, Bhut jolokia measures over a million units.
Q2. Which of the following is/are the String Puppets?
  1. Kathputli
  2. Tholu Bommalata
  3. Tolpavakoothu
  4. Putala Nach

Options

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1 and 4 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Kathputli from Rajasthan and Putala Nach from Assam are forms of string puppets.
  • Tholu Bommalata from Andhra Pradesh and Tolpavakoothu from Kerala are forms of shadow puppetry.

Read more  Forms of String puppets in India and Puppetry – Ancient Form of Art and Different Types in India

Q3. Arrange the following Capitals from West to East:
  1. Astana
  2. Bishkek
  3. Ashgabat
  4. Dushanbe

Options

  1. 1-2-3-4
  2. 2-3-4-1
  3. 3-4-1-2
  4. 4-1-2-3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

West to East: Ashgabat-Dushanbe-Astana-Bishkek.

Q4. Which of the following has/have been accorded the Geographical Indication (GI) tag?
  1. Kancheepuram Silk
  2. Arani Silk
  3. Baluchari Saree
  4. Patan Patola
  5. Venkatagiri Sarees

Options:

  1. 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 3, 4 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

                         Saree                                                                GI Tag accorded to

  • Kancheepuram Silk                                                        Tamil Nadu
  • Arani Silk                                                                          Tamil Nadu
  • Baluchari Saree                                                               West Bengal
  • Patan Patola                                                                     Gujarat
  • Venkatagiri Sarees                                                          Andhra Pradesh
Q5. In India, if a religious sect/community is given the status of a national minority, what 
special advantages it is entitled to? (2011)
  1. It can establish and administer exclusive educational institutions.
  2. The President of India automatically nominates a representative of the community to Lok Sabha.
  3. It can derive benefits from the Prime Minister’s 15-Point Programme.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

In India, if a religious sect/community is given the status of a national minority:

  • It can establish and administer exclusive educational institutions.
  • It can derive benefits from the Prime Minister’s 15-Point Programme.
  • Prime Minister’s 15 point Programme for minorities is a programme launched by the Indian government for the welfare of religious minorities.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Critically evaluate the decision of the Supreme Court to strike down the 97th constitutional amendment. (250 words; 15 marks) [GS-2, Polity and Governance]
  2. Under the GST regime, discuss measures to strengthen fiscal federalism. (250 words; 15 marks) [GS-2, Polity and Governance]

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 29th July 2021:- Download PDF Here

Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

*