07 May 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

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CNA 07 May 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
HEALTH
1. ‘Fertility rate falls further, obesity rises’
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
ENVIRONMENT
1. In rising heat, the cry of the wilting outdoor worker
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Overcoming differences
F. Prelims Facts
1. ISRO’s unique goal for Venus mission
G. Tidbits
1. Italy, India discuss Ukraine, energy and G-20 cooperation
2. Travesty of justice: SC on delay in bail to Azam
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. Overcoming differences

Syllabus: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests

Mains: Significance of stronger ties with European countries to India.

Context

The Prime Minister of India attended a series of bilateral talks with his counterparts from various European countries.

Background

For a detailed background of the topic refer to the following article:

UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis dated 5th May 2021

Significance of the India-Europe Cooperation

  • Ukraine war
    • The meeting between the leaders has gained significance in the backdrop of the conflict in Ukraine where India has a different stand as compared to Europeans.
    • Despite the differences, the leaders discussed ways to mitigate the adverse effects of the war.
  • Food security
    • France urged India to cooperate with the Food and Agriculture Resilience Mission (FARM) initiative for food security in the most vulnerable countries, especially in terms of wheat exports.
    • However, a severe heatwave has impacted India’s crops and the Government is looking for ways to supply wheat to the rest of the world at a time when the world is facing shortages and soaring prices.
  • Climate change
    • France and India have collaborated on the success of the Paris climate accord and co-founded the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in 2015.
    • The two countries now plan to extend the projects under ISA by signing industrial partnerships to build integrated supply chains in solar energy production for markets in Europe and Asia.
  • Space
    • India and France also had a bilateral strategic dialogue on space issues, which will further strengthen their 60 years long partnership in the field of space.
  • Nuclear energy and technology
    • In 1998, France was the only western country that did not impose sanctions on India for its nuclear tests.
    • Also in 2008, France became the first country to sign a civil nuclear deal with India after the NSG passed a waiver allowing India to access nuclear fuel and technology. 
    • France also plans to bid for six nuclear power plants in Maharashtra’s Jaitapur.

Know more about – India-EU Relations.

F. Prelims Facts

1. ISRO’s unique goal for Venus mission

Syllabus: GS3: Science and technology: Awareness in the fields of Space

Prelims: Venus mission; about planet Venus

Context: Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chairman laid down the expenditure of the mission to Venus depending on the level of instrumentation.

Venus mission:

  • India plans to launch a new orbiter to Venus in 2024.
  • It is commonly called the Shukrayaan. It is the first mission to Venus by the India Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and will study the planet for four years.
  • The most important instrument of Shukrayaan is its Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar which had been prepared by ISRO for the Chandrayaan-2 mission. 
  • The objective of the mission:
    • To study what lies below the surface of the hottest planet in the solar system and also unravel the mysteries under the sulphuric acid clouds enveloping it. 

Missions to Venus:

  • Sputnik 7, launched by the Soviet Union, was the world’s first Venus mission, but it was unsuccessful.
  • Mariner-1 was also used to launch the first flyby Venus mission, which failed in 1962.
  • The first successful interplanetary traveller, Mariner 2, arrived on Venus in 1962.
  • In 1967, Russia achieved success in the Venus mission with Venera-4.
  • The European Space Agency’s Venus Express mission was also successful in 2005.
  • When Japan’s Mission Akatsuki was successful in 2010, it joined a select group of countries with successful Venus missions.
Active Missions to Venus:

  • Akatsuki: In 2015, the Japanese Akatsuki spacecraft entered orbit around Venus in search of information about the planet’s atmosphere.
  • BepiColombo: The BepiColombo spacecraft of the European Space Agency is on its way to Mercury, but it will stop by Venus twice on the way.

Future Missions:

  • VERITAS: In 2028, NASA will launch the VERITAS spacecraft to investigate Venus and its history.
  • DAVINCI: NASA’s DAVINCI aims to get detailed measurements of the composition and structure of venus.
  • EnVision: The EnVision spacecraft is being launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) to study Venus and its past.

About Venus:

  • Venus is the second planet from the Sun and is the brightest planet in the solar system. 
  • It is sometimes referred to as the sister planet to Earth, because of its similar mass and size. 
  • The first aircraft to visit Venus was NASA’s Mariner 2 in 1962.
  • Venus has roughly the same diameter as Earth and sports a rocky surface and has an iron core. 
  • However, the planet doesn’t rotate fast enough to generate an Earth-like magnetic field.

G. Tidbits

1. Italy, India discuss Ukraine, energy and G-20 cooperation

  • India and Italy expressed concern about the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Ukraine and demanded an end to hostilities immediately.
  • The Ministers of both countries talked about how to put the “India-Italy Strategic Partnership on Energy Transition” into action.
  • The visit of the Italian foreign minister will provide an opportunity to discuss all aspects of bilateral relations.
  • It will deepen close cooperation, particularly in priority areas such as trade and investment, defence and security, clean and renewable energy, and science and technology cooperation.

2. Travesty of justice: SC on delay in bail to Azam

  • The Supreme Court expressed displeasure over the delay in hearing the bail application in a land grabbing case, saying “this is a travesty of justice”.
  • A travesty of justice is an unjust legal act or decision that appears to be a horrific mockery or imitation of how the justice system should work.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements with respect to “Operation AAHT”: (Level: Medium)
  1. It is an operation launched by the Railway Protection Force to combat human trafficking.
  2. It is an operation launched to reduce deforestation by replacing wood used for cremations with biofuel.
  3. An evacuation operation by the Government of India to evacuate the Indian citizens amidst the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
  4. An operation launched to repatriate Indian citizens from overseas during the COVID-19 pandemic.
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Operation AAHT is a nationwide effort to combat human trafficking that has been begun by the Railway Protection Force. 
  • The RPF’s (Railway Protection Force) infrastructure and intelligence network would be made use of as part of  “Operation AAHT” to collect, collate, and assess clues on victims, origin, path, destination, prominent trains in use by perpetrators, the identity of carriers/agents, crime lords, and other law-enforcement agencies, and then shared with other law-enforcement agencies.
  • Hence option ‘a’ is correct.
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to Syngas: (Level: Difficult)
  1. Syngas is a mixture primarily consisting of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
  2. It can be used to produce Liquid Fuels such as Methanol, Ethanol, Synthetic diesel.
  3. It can be used to produce nitrogenous fertilizers like Ammonia.

Which of the given statements is/are INCORRECT?

  1. 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. None of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Syngas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and dihydrogen. Since the mixture of the two gases is used for the synthesis of methanol, it is called syngas, or water gas. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Syngas produced from coal can be used to produce:
    • Gaseous Fuels such as Hydrogen (Blue coupled with CCUS), Substitute Natural Gas (SNG or Methane), Di-Methyl Ether (DME), Liquid Fuels such as Methanol, Ethanol, Synthetic diesel; Hence statement 2 is correct.
    • Chemicals like Methanol derivatives, Olefins, Propylene, Mono-Ethylene Glycol (MEG), nitrogenous fertilizers including Ammonia. Hence statement 3 is correct.
Q3. Which of the following statements best describes the (PM MITRA) Parks Scheme? 
(Level: Medium)
  1. It is a central sector scheme introduced to create modern infrastructure with efficient supply chain management from farm gate to retail outlets.
  2. It is a scheme launched to create an Integrated Textiles Value Chain right from spinning, weaving, processing/dyeing and printing to garment manufacturing, etc. at one location.
  3. It is a scheme launched to bring about sustainable development of the fisheries sector by establishing modern post-harvest infrastructure and supply chain management.
  4. A scheme launched for the creation of state of the art support infrastructure in a well-defined agri/horticultural zone for setting up of modern food processing units in the industrial plots provided in the park with a well-established supply chain.
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • The government has approved the setting up of seven PM MITRA Parks to create an Integrated Textiles Value Chain.
  • The seven Mega Integrated Textile Region and Apparel (PM MITRA) parks will be established at Greenfield or Brownfield sites located in different states.
  • PM MITRA is motivated by PM Modi’s 5F vision of farm to fibre; fibre to factory; factory to fashion; and fashion to foreign.
  • This integrated vision will help to further the growth of the textile sector in the economy.
  • The scheme is under the Textiles Ministry.
  • Hence option ‘b’ is correct.
Q4. Consider the following statements: (Level: Difficult)
  1. Guantánamo Bay is located in Cuba.
  2. The Florida Strait separates Cuba and the United States.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Guantánamo Bay is a bay in Cuba’s southeastern province of Guantánamo. 
  • The Florida Strait, which runs south-southeast of the North American mainland, separates the United States from Cuba.
Cuba Map

Image source: worldatlas.com

Q5. In the Constitution of India, promotion of international peace and security is included 
in the: (Level: Easy) [UPSC 2014]
  1. Preamble to the Constitution
  2. Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) 
  3. Fundamental Duties
  4. Ninth Schedule
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

Promoting international peace and security, as well as maintaining just and honourable relations between nations is stated in Article 51 of the Directive Principles of State Policy. Its goal is to promote international law and treaty obligations, as well as arbitration as a means of resolving international disputes. Part IV (Articles 36–51) of the Indian Constitution contains these provisions. However, these are not enforceable by any court.

Hence B is the correct answer.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Identify the roadblocks delaying the signing of the India – EU free trade agreement. How can the two sides work around these roadblocks? (250 words; 15 marks) GS III (Economic Development)
  2. Elaborate on the progress made by India in declining its total fertility rate in the past couple of decades. How does it impact the demographic dividend of India in the years to come? (250 words; 15 marks) GS I (Indian Society)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 07 May 2022:- Download PDF Here

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