20 May 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

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CNA 20 May 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY
1. SC says Centre, States have equal powers to make GST-related laws
C. GS 3 Related
ENVIRONMENT
1. Understanding India’s ethanol blending policy
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. Bridging the health policy to execution chasm
ENVIRONMENT
1. Pockets of Hope, linking nature and humanity
F. Prelims Facts
G. Tidbits
1. Pangong bridge construction is in ‘occupied territory’: Centre
2. ‘Made in India’ skin test for TB to be launched
3. ‘Ready to discuss Turkey’s concerns’
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Major Concerns:

  • Lack of proper public health infrastructure has been costly for society with the supreme challenge of shortage of trained public health workforce. 
  • There is a huge gap in the management of public health 
  • Lack of proper communication with the patients
  • Negligence at the policymaking level
  • A considerable delay has been observed in the improvement of access to healthcare services and in the betterment of the quality of care. 

Intervening Steps:

  • The proposed public health cadre and the health management cadre have been perceived as potential recommendations of NHP 2017 to address the issues faced in the healthcare sector of the country. 
  • The release of the guidance documents has encouraged and directed the states to formulate the action plan, identify the cadre strengths and fill up the vacancies with a stipulated time frame (6 months to 1 year). 
  • With the regular revision of the Indian Public Health Standards, enormous attention has been offered to the quality of health care services. 
  • India has always experienced a feeble workforce in public health services and in such a scenario, the decision to establish the public health cadre will definitely draw a possibility to strengthen the workforce. 
  • This would also be a welcoming move to increase resilience towards pandemic-like situations in the upcoming days with the support of adequate, skilled and trained public health experts. 
Public Health Management Cadre Timeline

Image source: nhsrcindia.org

Reforms Ahead:

  • It is necessary that any policy pertaining to public health must emphasise the advancements in the training of the health experts ensuring holistic delivery of preventive, promotive, curative and diagnostic services. 
  • There must be a precise understanding of the roles and functions of public health specialists and the relevance of such cadres at the district and sub-district levels.
  • This approach might prevent confusion at the policymaking level regarding the functions of an epidemiologist and a specialist in public health. 
  • Special training must be provided to the professionals to make an appropriate decision in the line of treatment to tackle particular pathogenesis as witnessed during the COVID-19 infection period. 
  • The revised IPHS (Indian Public Health Standards) is an important development but not an end to all problems. Despite the release of revised editions of IPHS, only a small proportion of government healthcare facilities meet the standards. This needs to be addressed to upgrade the quality standards of public health management. 
  • The revision of IPHS should be independently assessed to determine its effectiveness in improving the quality of health services across the country. 
  • Making a structure both in the Public Health and Specialist Cadre based of IPHS norms in existing facilities is suggested. 
  • As states develop plans for setting up the cadres of public health, all potential challenges in securing a trained workforce should be identified along with active steps. 
  • The standardisation of the quality of public health in the states will be a time-consuming process that demands undisturbed cooperation and coordination between the Centre, states, union territories, administrators, medical practitioners, health experts and other stakeholders of the healthcare sector.
Nut Graf
In order to establish a healthier society, the Indian states are required to act effectively in setting up a public health and management cadre.

2. ‘Made in India’ skin test for TB to be launched

  • India is all set to introduce a newly approved “made in India” TB infection skin test called ‘c-TB’.
  • This is said to be a cost-effective tool and will also be beneficial to other high burden countries as well. 
  • The Health Minister said that “Adopt people with TB” will be launched in 2022.

3. ‘Ready to discuss Turkey’s concerns’

  • The President of Finland said that his country was open to discussing Turkey’s concerns about its application to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).
  • Finland and Sweden formally applied to join the organisation in the wake of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
  • Turkey had opposed Finland and Sweden’s application to NATO accusing the countries of harbouring terrorists of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK). 
  • The Finnish President said that the country will commit to Turkey’s security, just as Turkey will commit to their security as a part of NATO allies.
  • The Prime Minister of Sweden said that her country was in discussion with all NATO members including Turkey to address and resolve any issues.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the given statements best describes a Virtual Private Network 
(VPN)? (Level – Difficult)
  1. It is a service that helps internet users to stay private online and provides protection from viruses and malware.
  2. It is a private computer network of an organisation in which remote users can transmit encrypted information through the organisation’s server.
  3. It is a private computer network which allows the users to access a shared pool of content that is not indexed by standard web search engines.
  4. It is a service that helps internet users to stay private online by hiding their (Internet Protocol) IP addresses. 
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • A virtual private network extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. 
  • It is a service that helps internet users to stay private online by hiding their (Internet Protocol) IP addresses.
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to Khangchendzonga National 
Park: (Level – Medium)
  1. It houses Tholung Monastery, one of the most sacred monasteries of Sikkim.
  2. The region is sacred to both the Buddhists and the Lepchas.
  3. It is the only UNESCO mixed world heritage site in Asia.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1 and 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct, The Tholung Monastery, one of the most sacred monasteries of Sikkim is situated inside the Khangchendzonga National Park
  • Statement 2 is correct, The region is sacred to both the Buddhists and the Lepchas.
  • Statement 3 is not correct, It was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in July 2016, becoming the first “Mixed Heritage” site in India. 
    • It is not the only UNESCO mixed world heritage site in Asia.
Q3. Which of the given statements is/are INCORRECT? (Level – Medium)
  1. In 2020, the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister set up a Beekeeping Development Committee under the Chairmanship of Professor Bibek Debroy.
  2. The National Beekeeping and Honey Mission was announced by the Union Government as part of the Atma Nirbhar Bharat package in 2020.
  3. The National Beekeeping and Honey Mission being implemented by the National Bee Board (NBB) is a central sector scheme.

Options:

  1. 1 only 
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. None of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct, The Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister set up a Beekeeping Development Committee under the Chairmanship of Professor Bibek Debroy in 2018.
  • Statement 2 is correct, The National Beekeeping and Honey Mission was announced by the Union Government as part of the Atma Nirbhar Bharat package in 2020. 
  • Statement 3 is correct, the National Beekeeping and Honey Mission being implemented by the National Bee Board (NBB) is a central sector scheme (100% funded by Central Government). 
Q4. Consider the following statements with respect to the Competition Commission 
of India (CCI):
  1. It is a statutory body.
  2. It is a quasi-judicial body.
  3. It has the suo moto power to enquire whether an Anti-Competitive Agreement or Abuse of Dominant Position causes or is likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition.
  4. The National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) hears and disposes of appeals against any direction issued or decision made or order passed by the CCI.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4 
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct, the Competition Commission of India (CCI) is a statutory body established under the provisions of the Competition Act 2002. 
  • Statement 2 is correct, CCI is a quasi-judicial body which gives opinions to statutory authorities and also deals with other cases.
  • Statement 3 is correct, Commission has suo moto power to enquire whether an anti-competitive agreement or abuse of dominant position causes or is likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition
  • Statement 4 is correct, NCLAT is the Appellate Tribunal to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction issued or decision made or order passed by the Commission.
Q5. According to Portuguese writer Nuniz, the women in Vijayanagara Empire were expert 
in which of the following areas?  (Level – Difficult) [UPSC 2021]
  1. Wrestling
  2. Astrology
  3. Accounting
  4. Soothsaying

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1, 2 and 3 Only
  2. 1, 3 and 4 Only
  3. 2 and 4 Only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • The Vijayanagara Kingdom had women wrestlers, astrologers, soothsayers, clerks and accountants. Hence option d is correct.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. “Indian federalism is a dialogue between cooperative and un-cooperative federalism where the federal units are at liberty to use different means of persuasion, ranging from collaboration to contestation”. Elaborate. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS II – Polity)
  2. Identify the challenges and opportunities associated with India’s Ethanol Blending Programme. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS III – Environment)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 20 May 2022:- Download PDF Here

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