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17 Nov 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 17 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Moscow talks on Afghanistan
C. GS 3 Related
BIODIVERSITY AND ENVIRONMENT
1. Compensation against damage due to Climate Change
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
POLITY
1. This unseating of vice chancellors is faulty
GOVERNANCE
1. Quest for transparency in FTA negotiations
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Baghdad gets a government, but violence haunts Iraq
F. Prelims Facts
G. Tidbits
1. Missile attack in Poland
2. Artemis Mission
3. Polavaram Project
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category: BIODIVERSITY AND ENVIRONMENT

1. Compensation against damage due to Climate Change

Syllabus: International Environment Agencies & Agreements

Mains: Importance of “Polluter Pays” principle in addressing climate change

Context: At the recent G-20 summit in Bali, several developed countries have pledged USD 20 billion to wean Indonesia off coal. 

Introduction

  • The United States, Japan, Canada and six European countries signed the accord with Indonesia on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Bali to ensure a “just power sector transition” away from Indonesia’s coal-dependent economy.
  • Under the deal, Indonesia, home to the world’s third-largest rainforest, pledges to be carbon-neutral by 2050, 10 years earlier than previously planned, and to almost double its renewable energy generation by 2030.
  • The U.S. and Japan have led the International Partners Group to mobilise funds from the public and private sectors to support Indonesia’s efforts. These countries pledged to raise at least $20 billion to help Indonesia.

Compensation against loss and damage due to climate change:

  • Climate reparations are loss and damage payments which are based on the concept of reparations. Climate reparations are a form of climate justice, in which compensation is necessary to hold countries accountable for loss and damage resulting from historical emissions, and is an ethical and moral obligation.
  • Between 1900 and now, developed countries have benefited from industrial development, which also led to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 
  • Data from the Global Carbon Project shows that between 1751 and 2017, 47% of the CO2 emissions came from the U.S. and European countries. In total, this makes just 29 countries.
  • Study shows that emissions attributable to the U.S. over 1990-2014 caused losses that are concentrated around 1–2% of per capita GDP across nations in South America, Africa, and South and Southeast Asia, where temperature changes have likely impacted labour productivity and agricultural yields.
  • Communities that are highly vulnerable to climate impacts are particularly prone to experiencing loss and damage when they experience climate impacts beyond what they can adapt to due to a lack of access to finance to implement adaptation measures.
  • Developing countries were relatively late in starting out on economic development and they are contributing to emissions now, but it is unfair to ask them to stop economic development in light of climate change instead of strict actions by developed countries. 
  • Historical responsibility is important because carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere for hundreds of years, and it is the cumulative accumulation of this carbon dioxide that causes global warming.
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Image Source: UNCTAD.org

India’s emissions:

  • India is among the top seven emitters. India along with China, the EU-27, Indonesia, Brazil, the Russian Federation and the U.S. plus international transport, accounted for 55% of global GHG emissions in 2020. 
  • Collectively, G-20 members are responsible for 75% of global GHG emissions.
  • In the context of India’s population, its emissions are far lesser per head, compared to other countries. 
  • World average per capita GHG emissions were 6.3 tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) in 2020. 
    • The U.S. is at 14, followed by 13 in the Russian Federation and 9.7 in China. 
    • India remains far below the world average at 2.4.

Read more on India’s Climate Targets.

Nut Graf: Deliberations in the ongoing COP27 summit showed little sign of a concerted effort the world over to keep emissions low so as to retain global warming within the 1.5°C range. Developed countries are expected to utilise COP27 to demonstrate solidarity with vulnerable countries by finally taking steps to identify a process and establish funding arrangements for loss and damage in a time-bound manner.  

2. Artemis Mission

  • NASA’s Artemis 1 mission was recently launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
  • The Artemis 1 mission was earlier scheduled to launch on November 14 but it had to be postponed because of tropical storm Nicole. 
  • Artemis was launched on the Space Launch System (SLS), which is the most powerful rocket in the world. The SLS rocket was designed for missions beyond low-earth orbit (LEO). It can take cargo and crew to the moon and beyond.
  • The SLS rocket is carrying the Orion spacecraft from the Earth to lunar orbit.
  • Artemis II is expected to follow in Artemis I’s footsteps.
    • Unlike Artemis I, Artemis II will have a crew aboard Orion and will be a test mission to confirm that all of the spacecraft’s systems will operate as designed when it has humans on board. 
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Image Source: Evening Standard

3. Polavaram Project

  • Telangana recently informed the Polavaram Project Authority (PPA) that the floods in the Godavari river in July 2022 inundated 103 villages, submerging 40,446 acres in the State.
  • As much as 892 acres of agricultural land will be submerged in the backwaters of the Polavaram project in five villages on either side of the Godavari within the State. 
  • The submergence will be caused by standing water at the full reservoir level (FRL) of 150 ft.
  • Polavaram Project is a multi-purpose irrigation project which has been accorded national project status by the central government. 
  • This dam across the Godavari River is under construction and located in West Godavari District and East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh state and its reservoir spreads in parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha States also.
  • The reservoir covers the famous Papikonda National Park.
  • It will also provide drinking water supply to Visakhapatnam Township and other towns and villages en route and industrial water supply to the Visakhapatnam coast-based steel plant and other industries in the vicinity.
  • It is also envisaged to generate hydel power, provide navigation facilities, develop pisciculture, boost urbanisation and offer recreational facilities as well.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following pairs: (Level-Difficult)

              Saree                                                                          State

  1. Chanderi                                                                       Madhya Pradesh
  2. Jamdani Dhakai                                                         West Bengal
  3. Paithani                                                                        Maharashtra
  4. Patola                                                                            Gujarat

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Pair 01 is correctly matched, Chanderi sari is a traditional sari made in Chanderi, Madhya Pradesh. The weaving culture of Chanderi emerged between the 2nd and 7th centuries. It is situated on the boundary of two cultural regions of the state, Malwa and Bundelkhand. 
  • Pair 02 is correctly matched, Jamdani is a fine muslin textile produced for centuries in South Bangladesh and West Bengal. The historic production of jamdani was patronised by imperial warrants of the Mughal emperors. 
    • Jamdani is typically woven using a mixture of cotton and gold thread.
    • In 2013, the traditional art of weaving jamdani was declared a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
    • In 2016, Bangladesh received geographical indication (GI) status for Jamdani Sari.
  • Pair 03 is correctly matched, Paithani is a variety of sari, named after the Paithan town in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra.
    • Paithani is characterised by borders of an oblique square design, and a padar (end of the sari) with a peacock design.
  • Pair 04 is correctly matched, Patola is a double ikat woven sari, usually made from silk, made in Patan, Gujarat, India.
    • Patola are usually woven in Surat, Ahmedabad and Patan. But velvet patola styles are majorly made in Surat.
    • It received a Geographical Indication (GI) tag in 2013.
    • Patola sarees are highly valued in Indonesia and became part of the local weaving tradition there.
Q2. With respect to Kartar Singh Sarabha, which of the following statements is/are 
correct? (Level-Medium)
  1. Kartar Singh was a key member of the Ghadar Party.
  2. He was sent to trial in the Lahore Conspiracy case.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is correct, Kartar Singh Sarabha was Ghadar Party’s youngest founding member. He was one of the most active fundraisers in the organisation, holding meetings in the rural areas where the farmers donated generously.
  • Statement 02 is correct, In 1915,  Kartar Singh Sarabha was arrested and put on a trial for what came to be called the Lahore conspiracy case which resulted in the execution of 24 Ghadris including him.
Q3. Which of the following are the books written by Swami Dayananda Saraswati? 
(Level-Difficult)
  1. Satyartha Prakash
  2. Sanskarvidhi
  3. Rigved Bhashyam
  4. Vedic chronology and Vedanga Jyotisha

Options:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation: 

  • Major literary works by Swami Dayananda Saraswati are Satyartha Prakash, Sanskarvidhi, Rigved Bhashyam, etc.
  • Vedic chronology and Vedanga Jyotisha were authored by Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Q4. Which of the following are the objectives of Artemis missions? (Level-Medium)
  1. Demonstrate new technologies, capabilities, and business approaches needed for future exploration including Mars.
  2. Broaden the commercial and international partnerships of NASA.
  3. Inspire a new generation and encourage careers in STEM.
  4. Study the Moon to learn more about the origin and history of Earth, the Moon, and our solar system.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 2, 3 and 4
  4. 3 and 4 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: 

  • The main objectives of the Artemis mission are: 
    • Demonstrate new technologies, capabilities, and business approaches needed for future exploration including Mars. 
    • Study the Moon to learn more about the origin and history of Earth, the Moon, and our solar system. 
    • Establish American leadership and a strategic presence on the Moon while expanding our U.S. global economic impact. 
    • Broaden NASA’s commercial and international partnerships. 
    • Inspire a new generation and encourage careers in STEM.
Q5. Consider the following statements: DNA Barcoding can be a tool to:(Level-Medium) 
(CSE-PYQ-2022)
  1. Assess the age of a plant or animal.
  2. Distinguish among species that look alike.
  3. Identify undesirable animal or plant materials in processed foods.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 2
  4. 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation: 

  • Statement 01 is incorrect, To measure the age of plant and animal remains scientists use the carbon dating method.
  • Statement 02 is correct, DNA barcodes help to objectively identify species – even from small, damaged, or industrially processed material. It can be used to distinguish among species that look alike.
  • Statement 03 is correct, DNA barcoding helps to identify the undesirable animal or plant materials in processed foods.

CNA 17 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here

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